File Name: different article written about conflict between india and occupied kasmir .zip
- Hustling in the Himalayas: The Sino-Indian Border Confrontation
- The Kashmir Dispute: Prospects for Conflict Resolution
- Article 370: What happened with Kashmir and why it matters
Hustling in the Himalayas: The Sino-Indian Border Confrontation
The region of Kashmir is one of the most volatile areas in the world. The nations of India and Pakistan have fiercely contested each other over Kashmir, fighting three major wars and two minor wars. It has gained immense international attention given the fact that both India and Pakistan are nuclear powers and this conflict represents a threat to global security. To understand this conflict, it is essential to look back into the history of the area. In August of , India and Pakistan were on the cusp of independence from the British. The British India Empire was made up of multiple princely states states that were allegiant to the British but headed by a monarch along with states directly headed by the British.
The Kashmir Dispute: Prospects for Conflict Resolution
It has been used to collectively denote the area comprising Gilgit—Baltistan and Azad Kashmir since the ceasefire declared between India and Pakistan by the United Nations on 31 December, Hardly a day goes by without the PoK being mentioned in the newspapers; it dominates international news and foreign policy debates in India. To the Indian mind, the logical conclusion would be that Kashmir can be called an integral part of India, and any claim that Pakistan lays on Kashmir has no legal grounds or precedents. Although this narrative is far from the full story, it is not the fault of the average Indian for holding such a biased view of the Kashmir conflict. It could be due to nationalistic fervour, as much as to the manner in which the issue is framed in history and geography textbooks in India. The fact that Kashmir is and has always been an integral part of India is driven into the mind, both through the telling of history and, more importantly, through visual geographic depiction. Generations of Indians who went to school after have seen a map of India that includes territories that have not been in its control since
The war between India and Pakistan was the second conflict between the two countries over the status of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. The clash did not resolve this dispute, but it did engage the United States and the Soviet Union in ways that would have important implications for subsequent superpower involvement in the region. The dispute over this region originated in the process of decolonization in South Asia. When the British colony of India gained its independence in , it was partitioned into two separate entities: the secular nation of India and the predominantly Muslim nation of Pakistan. Pakistan was composed of two noncontiguous regions, East Pakistan and West Pakistan, separated by Indian territory. The state of Jammu and Kashmir, which had a predominantly Muslim population but a Hindu leader, shared borders with both India and West Pakistan. The argument over which nation would incorporate the state led to the first India-Pakistan War in —48 and ended with UN mediation.
The conflict between India and Pakistan over Kashmir which is considered as the different political political orientations in Pakistan-controlled Kashmir as.
Article 370: What happened with Kashmir and why it matters
India's BJP-led government is hailing its decision to strip the state of Jammu and Kashmir of autonomy after seven decades, characterising it as the correction of a "historical blunder". The area was once a princely state called Jammu and Kashmir, but it joined India in soon after the sub-continent was divided up at the end of British rule. India and Pakistan subsequently went to war over it and each came to control different parts of the territory with a ceasefire line agreed. There has been violence in the Indian-administered side - the state of Jammu and Kashmir - for 30 years due to a separatist insurgency against Indian rule. Tens of thousands of additional Indian troops were deployed, a major Hindu pilgrimage was cancelled, schools and colleges were shut, tourists were ordered to leave, telephone and internet services were suspended and regional political leaders were placed under house arrest.
In early August , Kashmir, a region contested by India and Pakistan, had its decades-long special status revoked. When Kashmir was integrated in , India gave it a certain degree of autonomy, going so far as to allow it its own constitution. Since then, there have been myriad conflicts within the region, with Pakistan invading and attempting to claim the territory as well as separatist and terrorist groups demanding independence from India.
Once again, Chinese and Indian forces find themselves locked in a tense border standoff. But, for the most part, these encounters end uneventfully, without the firing of weapons or loss of life on either side. Patrolling platoons have, however, often engaged in intense physical altercations involving scuffles and stone throwing, which are then calmed through flag meetings between Chinese and Indian senior military officers.
Thousands of Chinese and Indian troops have been in a standoff in the Ladakh region high in the Himalayas since early May. After reaching an agreement to de-escalate on June 6 , the mutual withdrawal of troops from the Galwan Valley went dramatically wrong on June 15, with Indian army officials reporting clashes that resulted in twenty deaths. Speaking by phone on June 17, both the Chinese and Indian foreign ministers agreed to avoid actions that might escalate the conflict.
A many-sided conflict
The following is a timeline of the Kashmir conflict , a territorial conflict between India , Pakistan and, to a lesser degree, China. India and Pakistan have been involved in four wars and several border skirmishes over the issue. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Timeline of the conflict over Kashmir and inside Kashmir. Archived from the original on 21 December Retrieved 5 December Archived from the original on 28 September
In a recently published book that reflects very thoughtfully on the preconditions for reaching international agreement in regional disputes, the scholar-diplomat Richard N. Haass maintains that much of what presently constitutes mainstream writing on negotiation is focused either on the negotiating process, where the emphasis is on technique, style and approach, or on conflict resolution, where emphasis is on the promotion of formulas aimed at eliminating the grounds for disagreement. Too little attention, he suggests, is given to the larger geopolitical context, where much of the reason for the success or failure of negotiations is actually to be found. Better, he says, that peacemakers focus on the more modest objectives of conflict management than for their efforts to perish on the field of conflict resolution. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
Help us continue to fight human rights abuses. Please give now to support our work. Click to expand Image Relatives of disappeared persons participate in a silent protest, demanding an investigation into the disappearances of people in Kashmir. Meenakshi Ganguly. The Srinagar-based Jammu and Kashmir Coalition of Civil Society reported that conflict-related casualties were the highest in since , with people killed, including members of armed groups, security forces personnel, and civilians.
Боюсь, что. И мы должны его найти.
Танкадо рассудил, что, если он погибнет, деньги ему не понадобятся, - так почему бы не вручить миру маленький прощальный подарок. Оба замолчали. Сьюзан глубоко дышала, словно пытаясь вобрать в себя ужасную правду.
Стратмор шагнул вперед, нащупывая ногой место, где начинались ступеньки узенькой лестницы. Переложив берет-ту в левую руку, правой он взялся за перила. Он прекрасно знал, что левой рукой стрелял так же плохо, как и правой, к тому же правая рука была ему нужна, чтобы поддерживать равновесие. Грохнуться с этой лестницы означало до конца дней остаться калекой, а его представления о жизни на пенсии никак не увязывались с инвалидным креслом. Сьюзан, ослепленная темнотой шифровалки, спускалась, не отрывая руки от плеча Стратмора.
Росио игриво улыбнулась и кивнула на немца.
За дверью послышалось движение, раздались голоса. Он постучал. Послышался голос с сильным немецким акцентом: - Ja. Беккер молчал.
Самое странное заключалось в том, что Танкадо, казалось, понимал, что таковы правила игры. Он не дал волю гневу, а лишь преисполнился решимости. Когда службы безопасности выдворяли его из страны, он успел сказать несколько слов Стратмору, причем произнес их с ледяным спокойствием: - Мы все имеем право на тайну. И я постараюсь это право обеспечить. ГЛАВА 7 Мозг Сьюзан лихорадочно работал: Энсей Танкадо написал программу, с помощью которой можно создавать шифры, не поддающиеся взлому.