File Name: new generation and hybrid vehicles notes .zip
An electric vehicle EV is a vehicle that uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion. An electric vehicle may be powered through a collector system by electricity from off-vehicle sources, or may be self-contained with a battery , solar panels , fuel cells or an electric generator to convert fuel to electricity.
- NEW GENERATION AND HYBRID VEHICLES Material pdf download - LectureNotes for free
- Electric Vehicle Benefits and Considerations
- New generation and hybrid vehicle notes
- Control of Hybrid Electrical Vehicles
He is currently the U. Giorgio Rizzoni is the Ford Motor Co. His research activities are related to advanced propulsion systems for ground vehicles, energy efficiency, alternative fuels, the interaction between vehicles and the electric power grid, vehicle safety and intelligence, and policy and economic analysis of alternative fuels and vehicle fuel economy.
Electric Vehicles - Modelling and Simulations. Developing cars is a major factor that has determined the increasing of the civilization degree and the continuous stimulation of the society progress. Currently, in Europe, one in five active people and in the US, one in four, directly work in the automotive industry research, design, manufacture, maintenance or in related domains fuel, trade, traffic safety, roads, environmental protection. On our planet the number of the cars increases continuously and he nearly doubled in the last 10 years. With increasing number of cars entered in circulation every year, is held and increasing fuel consumption, increased environmental pollution due to emissions from internal combustion engines ICE , used to their propulsion.
NEW GENERATION AND HYBRID VEHICLES Material pdf download - LectureNotes for free
Electric Vehicles - Modelling and Simulations. Developing cars is a major factor that has determined the increasing of the civilization degree and the continuous stimulation of the society progress. Currently, in Europe, one in five active people and in the US, one in four, directly work in the automotive industry research, design, manufacture, maintenance or in related domains fuel, trade, traffic safety, roads, environmental protection.
On our planet the number of the cars increases continuously and he nearly doubled in the last 10 years. With increasing number of cars entered in circulation every year, is held and increasing fuel consumption, increased environmental pollution due to emissions from internal combustion engines ICE , used to their propulsion. Reducing oil consumption takes into account the limited availability of petroleum reserves and reducing emissions that affect the health of population in large urban agglomerations.
The car needs a propulsion source to develop a maximum torque at zero speed. This can not be achieved with the classic ICE.
For ICE power conversion efficiency is weak at low speeds and it has the highest values close to the rated speed. Pollution reduction can be achieved by using electric vehicles EV , whose number is still significant. The idea of an electrical powered vehicle EV has been around for almost years. The first electric vehicle was built by Thomas Davenport in [ Westbrook, ]] But over time, the batteries used for energy storage could provide the amount of electricity needed to fully electric propulsion vehicles.
Electric vehicles are powered by electric batteries which are charged at stations from sources supplied by electrical network with electricity produced in power plants. Currently, a lot of researches are focused on the possibility of using fuel cells for producing energy from hydrogen.
If performance is assessed overall thrust of the effort wheel and crude oil consumed for the two solutions: classic car with ICE and car with electric motor powered by electric batteries, the difference between their yields is not spectacular.
In terms of exhaust emissions is the net advantage for electric vehicles. Pollutant emissions due to energy that is produced in power plants plant property, located are much easier to control than those produced by internal combustion engines of vehicles that are individual and scattered.
Power plants are usually located outside urban areas, their emissions affects fewer people living in these cities. By using electric motors and controllers efficient, electric vehicles provide the means to achieve a clean and efficient urban transport system and a friendly environment. Any vehicle that has more than one power source can be considered hybrid electric vehicle HEV.
But this name is used most often for a vehicle using for propulsion a combination of an electric drive motor and an ICE, which energy source is fossil fuel. The first patent for involving HEV technology was filed in by the american H.
The change of focus to hybrid technology was done by almost all vehicle manufacturers. Many prototypes and a few mass produced vehicles are now available. There are several configurations of electric and hybrid vehicles [ Bayindir, , Ehsani, ]: 1. Concept of hybrid electric vehicle with ICE-electric motor aims to overcome the disadvantages of the pure electric vehicles, whose engines are powered by electric batteries: the limited duration of use low autonomy and time recharging for batteries.
A hybrid electric vehicle is distinguee from a standard ICE driven by four different parts: a a device to store a large amount of electrical energy, b an electrical machine to convert electrical power into mechanical torque on the wheels, c a modified ICE adapted to hybrid electric use, d a transmission system between the two different propulsion techniques.
Figure 1 shows the possible subsystems of a hybrid vehicle configuration [ Chan, ], [ Ehsani, ]. The devices used to store electrical energy could be batteries, hydrogen powered fuel cell or supercapacitors.
The HEV can use the electrical machine to behave as a generator and thereby produce electrical energy, which can be stored and used later. The ICE may be the same type as those on conventional vehicles, but it must be designed and optimized for hybrid vehicles.
The transmission system between the ICE and the electrical machine is typically of series or parallel architecture. Electric vehicles with two energy sources are also called hybrid vehicles. On hybrid-electric vehicles, in addition to the main battery, special batteries or capacitors, as a secondary energy source are used. These secondary energy sources are designed to provide power for short periods of peak operating conditions - for example, during the ascent of a slope or during acceleration.
This is necessary because some batteries with the highest energy density have low power density. This power density is easily obtained from a lead-based battery and this is an auxiliary battery that is suitable for use with an aluminum-air battery in a hybrid-electric vehicle. A combination of hybrid electric vehicle that is under development and of great interest, thanks to improvements in fuel cell, is the electric vehicle powered with fuel cell and an auxiliary battery.
This battery can provide a high current necessary to start and can also serve as a load limiting device which allows the fuel cell to operate at low power first and then warm for a high power operation. This arrangement enhances the efficiency of the entire system and also allows the vehicle to use the recuperative braking.
Another class of hybrid electric vehicles, called hybrid electromechanical vehicles, use in addition to the main electric drive powered by batteries and a mechanical energy storage device such as a flywheel, or a hydraulic accumulator [ Westbrook, ]. Hybrid electric vehicles represents a bridge between the present vehicle powered by ICEs and vehicles of the future characterized by a near-zero emissions, ULEV Ultra-Low-Emission-Vehicle or, in some cases even without pollution ZEV-Zero-Emission Vehicle , as it is expected to be electrically propelled vehicles powered by fuel cells supplied with hydrogen.
It is very important to be reminded that without taking the technology steps and to improve the hybrid propulsion systems it is not possible to achieve higher level of the propulsion technology which uses fuel cells. Currently a number of construction companies sell hybrid electric vehicles in series production: Toyota, Honda, Ford, General Motors. Many other companies have made prototypes of hybrid electric vehicles, the shift in mass production is only a matter of time that depends on the improvement of operating parameters and manufacturing cost reductions.
Regarding the line of a hybrid electric vehicle powertrain, it is complex in terms of construction, operation and electronic control system than the most evolved similar vehicle equipped with conventional internal combustion engine.
These new elements make the price a such vehicle to be higher than that of a vehicle powered only by internal combustion engine. Thus, as shown in [ Ehsani, ] the first vehicle car series hybrid electric Toyota designed by the company line is the most sophisticated and most advanced integrated powertrain control strategy of the firm ever made known to promote ideas of great ingenuity and technical complexity.
The architecture of a hybrid vehicle is defined as the connection between the components of the energy flow routes and control ports. Hybrid electric vehicles were classified into two basic types: series and parallel. But presently HEVs are classified into four kinds: series hybrid, parallel hybrid, series-parallel hybrid and complex.
The primary power source steady power source is made up of fuel tank and ICE and battery-electric motor is taken as secondary source dynamic power source. A series hybrid drive train uses two power sources which feeds a single powerplant electric motor that propels the vehicle. In Figure 2 is shown a series hybrid electric drive train where: fuel tank is an unidirectional energy source and the ICE coupled to an electric generator is a unidirectional energy converter.
The electric generator is connected to an electric power bus through an electronic converter rectifier. Also the electric power bus is connected to the controller of the electric traction motor. The traction motor can be controlled either as a motor when propels the vehicle or as generator to vehicle braking.
A battery charger can charge batteries with the energy provided by an electrical network. The possible operating modes of series hybrid electric drive trains are [ Ehsani, ]: 1. Pure electric: ICE is stopped and the vehicle is propelled only by batteries energy, 2. Pure engine mode: the vehicle is powered with energy provided by electric generator driven by engine. The batteries no provide and do not take energy from the drive train. Hybrid mode: The traction power is drawn from both the engine-generator and the batteries.
Engine traction and battery charging mode: The ICE-generator provides the energy needed for the batteries charging and the propulsion vehicle. Regenerative braking mode: the engine is turned off and the traction motor is operated as generator and the energy provided is used to charge the batteries.
Batteries charging mode: The engine —generator charges the batteries and the traction motor is not supplied. Hybrid batteries charging mode: Both the engine-generator and the traction motor operate as generator to charge the batteries.
For series hybrid drive trains the following advantages can be mentioned: 1. Because the ICE is mechanical decoupled from the driven wheels and thus the ICE can operate solely within its maximum efficiency region, at a high-speed where and the emissions are reduced.
Electric motors have near-ideal torque-speed characteristics and multigear transmissions are not necessary.
The electrical transmission provides the mechanical decoupling and allows the using of a simple control strategy. The series hybrid electric drive trains have some disadvantages: 1. The mechanical energy of the ICE is first converted to electrical energy in the generator and the output energy of generator is converted into mechanical energy in the traction motor. The losses in the generator and the traction motor may be significant and these reduce the system efficiency.
The generator adds additional weight and cost. The traction motor must be designed to meet maximum requirements, because only it is used for the vehicle propulsion. Series hybrid configuration is mostly used in heavy vehicles, military vehicles and buses [ Bayindir, ].
In the parallel configuration the power of the ICE and the electric motor are added into mechanical coupling, as shown in Figure 3 and operate the drive train by the mechanical transmission. There are different combination of the engine and electric motor power:.
Torque-coupling parallel hybrid electric drive trains, 2. Speed-coupling parallel hybrid electric drive trains, 3. Torque-coupling and speed-coupling parallel hybrid electric drive trains. The torque coupling adds the torques of the engine T in1 , and the electric motor, T in2 , together or splits the engine torque into two parts: vehicle propelling and battery is charging.
In parallel hybrid electric vehicle various control strategies can be used. In the most common strategies, ICE is used in on mode and operates at almost constant power output at its area of maximum efficiency.
If the power requested from drive train is higher than the output power of ICE, the electric motor is turned on, ICE and electric motor supply power to the drive train. If the power requested from drive train is less than the output power of the ICE, the remaining power is used for charging the batteries. In this configuration, regenerative braking power on a down slope driving is used to charge the batteries.
For hybrid electric vehicles three electromechanical devices are important: batteries supercapacitors and fuel cels FC. The batteries provide storage of energy that is essential for regenerative braking. Also the batteries are a source of energy that is necessary for electric-only propulsion.
Supercapacitors, which have the similar capability, are high-power and low-stored-energy devices. Supercapacitors are used to improve high power peak for short duration. Batteries are heavy and repeated deep discharge adversely affects life. The fuel cell FC system has a fuel tank and stores energy in the form of hydrogen.
An FC can be used for electric-only propulsion and it cannot be used for regenerative braking. The batteries can be classified in primary batteries, which cannot be recharged, and secondary batteries, which have reversible reactions and can be charged and discharged. The basic unit of a battery is the voltaic cell. Voltaic cells have the following components parts: the electrodes: anode and cathode, and the electrolyte.
Electric Vehicle Benefits and Considerations
Hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles can help improve fuel economy, lower fuel costs, and reduce emissions. Using more energy efficient vehicles like hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles is an important part of continuing this successful trend of minimizing imported petroleum. This supports the U. Additionally, using an energy source such as electricity for transportation creates a resiliency benefit. The multiple fuel sources used in the generation of electricity results in a more secure and domestically generated energy source for the electrified portion of the transportation sector. Hybrid electric vehicles HEVs typically use less fuel than similar conventional vehicles, because they employ electric-drive technologies to boost vehicle efficiency through regenerative braking—recapturing energy otherwise lost during braking. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles PHEVs and all-electric vehicles EVs , also referred to as battery electric vehicles, are both capable of being powered solely by electricity, which is produced in the United States from natural gas, coal, nuclear energy, wind energy, hydropower, and solar energy.
The Global EV Outlook is an annual publication that identifies and discusses recent developments in electric mobility across the globe. Combining historical analysis with projections to , the report examines key areas of interest such as electric vehicle and charging infrastructure deployment, ownership cost, energy use, carbon dioxide emissions and battery material demand. The report includes policy recommendations that incorporate learning from frontrunner markets to inform policy makers and stakeholders that consider policy frameworks and market systems for electric vehicle adoption. This edition features a specific analysis of the performance of electric cars and competing powertrain options in terms of greenhouse gas emissions over their life cycle. As well, it discusses key challenges in the transition to electric mobility and solutions that are well suited to address them. This includes vehicle and battery cost developments; supply and value chain sustainability of battery materials; implications of electric mobility for power systems; government revenue from taxation; and the interplay between electric, shared and automated mobility options. The number of charging points worldwide was estimated to be approximately 5.
A hybrid electric vehicle HEV is a type of hybrid vehicle that combines a conventional internal combustion engine ICE system with an electric propulsion system hybrid vehicle drivetrain. The presence of the electric powertrain is intended to achieve either better fuel economy than a conventional vehicle or better performance. There is a variety of HEV types and the degree to which each function as an electric vehicle EV also varies. The most common form of HEV is the hybrid electric car, although hybrid electric trucks pickups and tractors and buses also exist. Modern HEVs make use of efficiency-improving technologies such as regenerative brakes which convert the vehicle's kinetic energy to electric energy, which is stored in a battery or supercapacitor. Some varieties of HEV use an internal combustion engine to turn an electrical generator , which either recharges the vehicle's batteries or directly powers its electric drive motors; this combination is known as a motor—generator. Many HEVs reduce idle emissions by shutting down the engine at idle and restarting it when needed; this is known as a start-stop system.
The IEA and IA-HEV collaborate on hybrid and electric vehicles in 2 us97redmondbend.org A brief summary of the report's main points is included here. GLOBAL meeting notes. The latest generation of fuel cell vehicles shows a remarkable.
New generation and hybrid vehicle notes
Ни за что на свете. - Он засмеялся. - Супружеская пара без секретов - это очень скучно. Сьюзан застенчиво улыбнулась.
Сьюзан сделала еще несколько шагов и вдруг поняла, что это за предмет. В руке Хейл сжимал беретту. Вскрикнув, она оторвала взгляд от неестественно выгнутой руки и посмотрела ему в лицо.
До смерти напуганный, Двухцветный замотал головой: - Нет. - Viste el anillo. Ты видел кольцо. Двухцветный замер. Как правильно ответить.
Беккер посмотрел вниз, на свои ноги. До апельсиновых деревьев не меньше ста метров.
Control of Hybrid Electrical Vehicles
А коммандер? - спросил. Бринкерхофф покачал головой. Человек ничего не сказал, задумался на мгновение, а потом обратился к Сьюзан.
Но с ключа могут снять копию. - Каждый, кто к нему прикоснется, будет уничтожен. Повисла тишина. Наконец Нуматака спросил: - Где ключ. - Вам нужно знать только одно: он будет найден.
on Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Technologies and Programmes, functions within a In , we could start a high number of new Tasks. This was the result of emissions and the PM emission of the current electricity generation in different Springer's Lecture Notes in Mobility series (Figure 2). It presents.
Я не надеялся что-либо найти, но наткнулся на учетную запись абонента. - Он выдержал паузу. - Я, конечно, предположил, что это не та Северная Дакота, которую мы ищем, но на всякий случай проверил эту запись.
Сью… зан, - заикаясь, начал. - Я… я не понимаю. - Я не могу, - повторила. - Я не могу выйти за тебя замуж.
Сьюзан в отчаянии колотила в дверную панель, но все было бесполезно. Шифр, подумала. Кабинет постепенно утопал в дыму.
Стратмор повернулся и с удивлением увидел Хейла.
ГЛАВА 90 В шифровалке завывали сирены. Стратмор не имел представления о том, сколько времени прошло после ухода Сьюзан. Он сидел один в полутьме, и гул ТРАНСТЕКСТА звучал в его ушах.
Вверху мирно раскачивалась курильница. Халохот, расталкивая людей, двигался по центральному проходу, ища глазами намеченную жертву. Он где-то .
- Посылает сообщение о том, что Танкадо ликвидирован. Сьюзан повернулась к Беккеру и усмехнулась: - Похоже, у этого Халохота дурная привычка сообщать об убийстве, когда жертва еще дышит. Камера последовала за Халохотом, двинувшимся в направлении жертвы.
В голосе Беккера слышались извиняющиеся нотки: - Простите, но это определенно осмысленные слова. Они выгравированы очень близко одно к другому и на первый взгляд кажутся произвольным набором букв, но если присмотреться повнимательнее, то… становится ясно, что надпись сделана по-латыни. - Вы что, морочите нам голову? - взорвался Джабба.
- Я вас ни в чем не виню. - Но, сэр… - заикаясь выдавила. - Я… я протестую. Я думаю… - Вы протестуете? - переспросил директор и поставил на стол чашечку с кофе.
Мне неприятно тебе это говорить, - сказал Стратмор, - но лифт без электричества - это не лифт. - Вздор! - крикнул Хейл. - Лифт подключен к энергоснабжению главного здания. Я видел схему.