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- The Oxford handbook of computational linguistics
- The Handbook of Computational Linguistics and Natural Language Processing
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the handbook of computational linguistics and natural language processing pdf
The Oxford handbook of computational linguistics. Part II rather than Part III, given that the chapter makes no reference to other areas that have appropriated these techniques and applied them elsewhere. Some of these chapters make the obvious connections to topics in Part I, but others could have done more in this regard.
However, there are many forward references to applications in Part III to which these techniques are pertinent. The levels of treatment accorded to the topics in Part II are perhaps a little mixed, with some being less introductory than others. Thus Carroll's survey of parsing techniques provides an abstract overview for the researcher who already has a firm grasp of the computational issues and can appreciate the differences in parsing strategy and structural bookkeeping that he describes.
Similarly, Karttunen's treatment of finitestate technology is more a summary of transducers for NLP than an introduction to the field. This is probably fine for a handbook of this kind, although it might limit the usefulness of these chapters for some students. By contrast, Mikheev's chapter on segmentation and Voutilainen's chapter on POS tagging provide more background for the general reader and are comprehensible by nonexperts. Each of these chapters provides enough material to get a student started on the conception and planning phases of a segmentation or tagging project.
Mitkov's exposition of anaphora resolution is particularly clear, being full of illuminating and often entertaining examples that highlight the distinctions between different kinds of anaphora, such as coreferring and non-coreferring. Kittredge's overview of sublanguages and controlled languages is also well organized and a model of clarity. Middle chapters in Part II concentrate upon technologies to solve somewhat higherlevel problems, such as natural language generation, speech recognition, and text-tospeech synthesis.
Lamel and Gauvain's treatment of speech recognition is again an overview, rather than an introduction to the field, and is unlikely to be accessible to nonexperts. For example, the cepstral transformation and the Mel scale could be better motivated; neither is formally defined or linked to a glossary entry. Many students of NLP will not be familiar with these concepts and will not understand their importance in linear prediction and filterbank analyses using hidden Markov models.
These fairly specialized topics are then followed by useful chapters on subjects of interest to most computational linguists. Samuelsson's chapter on statistical methods does a very efficient job of imparting the basics of probability theory, hidden Markov models, and maximum-entropy models, together with a little dry humor. Mooney concentrates on the induction of symbolic representations of knowledge, such as rules and decision trees, in his chapter on machine learning.
This focus avoids overlap with more statistical learning methods, such as naive Bayes, and allows room for covering case-based methods, such as nearest-neighbor algorithms. Hirschman and Mani's chapter on evaluation represents a valiant attempt to cover, in a few pages, what remains a neglected topic in computational linguistics and natural language processing.
It's a sad fact of life that gold standard-based approaches, such as those used in the Message Understanding and Text Retrieval Conferences, only take one so far in proving the effectiveness of research prototypes or final products.
Measures such as precision and recall are useful yardsticks, but the real issue is, what value does the system deliver to an end user? More specifically, what does the system enable a knowledge worker to do that he or she could not do before? Academic researchers are typically not well placed to either pose or answer such questions, but any purveyor of natural language software must somehow address them. The section on evaluation of mature output components is the most relevant here.
McEnery provides an able introduction to corpus linguistics, albeit with a primary focus upon English, and briefly summarizes some of the advances that annotated corpora have enabled. Vossen's chapter on ontologies provides many useful pointers to resources around the globe and makes an explicit attempt to outline areas of NLP in which such resources can and have been used.
However, it is clear that the value of ontological approaches has yet to be fully demonstrated and that many of the tools are still in their infancy. Part II ends with a compact and readable overview of lexicalized tree-adjoining grammars by Joshi, which both motivates the formalism and illustrates its power.
Part III provides overviews of important areas such as machine translation, information retrieval, information extraction, question answering, and summarization. These chapters will be particularly attractive to practitioners in these fields, as they provide succinct and realistic overviews of what can and cannot be achieved by current technology. I confess to having read these chapters first.
In fact, it might not be a bad strategy for some readers to dive straight into an application area in which they are particularly interested, and then read other chapters as needed, using the cross-references as a guide. Machine translation is accorded two chapters, one that discusses the earlier, rulebased approaches and one that deals with more recent, empirical approaches based on parallel corpora.
Both chapters give the general reader a good feel for the issues, the strengths and limitations of the various methods, and the kinds of tools that are currently available to assist translators. Somers's brief survey of statistical approaches to MT is particularly insightful on the topic of early successes and subsequent lack of improvement.
In the information retrieval chapter, Tzoukerman, Klavans, and Strzalkowski provide a frank assessment of how little impact natural language processing has had upon current search engine technology, beyond the application of tokenization and stemming rules. Whether attempting to apply WordNet to query expansion or seeking to disambiguate query terms, researchers have typically either failed to deliver improvements or failed to scale complex solutions to applications of commercial value.
They conclude that NLP techniques to date have either been too weak to have a measurable impact or too expensive in terms of effort or computation to be cost-effective.
Grishman's information-extraction chapter provides a clear exposition of two problems: identifying proper names and recognizing events. Grishman provides an overview of the work done under the auspices of the Message Understanding Conferences in these areas, as well as an update on machine-learning approaches to the problem of building extraction patterns.
Hearst's chapter on text data mining distinguishes this area from information retrieval and text categorization, linking the field to exploratory data analysis. In looking for gaps in the book as a whole, one cannot help noticing that the chapters on ontologies, word senses, and lexical knowledge acquisition by Matsumoto are among the few to touch upon semantic information processing. This is in marked contrast to many AI and NLP collections from the s, in which articles on knowledge representation languages and text interpretation schemes abounded.
Also absent are connectionist models of speech and language, which were perhaps more popular in the s than they are today. These omissions may reflect a new realism in the field, in which the emphasis is now upon methods that are scalable, less knowledge intensive, and more amenable to empirical evaluation. Overall, this is an impressive volume that demonstrates just how far the field has progressed in the last decade.
During that time, we are fortunate to have seen many advances in both the theory and practice of computational linguistics research, and one feels that these must be attended by improvements in natural language processing in the near future.
When one combines the newer corpus-based approaches with continued advances in algorithms and representations in other areas, and then factors in annual increases in computing power and storage capability, one sees a recipe for further successes on hard problems like speech recognition, machine translation, and broad-coverage parsing.
Over the last 20 years, he has published books and papers on expert systems, theorem proving, information extraction, and text categorization. Paul, MN ; e-mail: Peter. Jackson Thomson. This is a wonderful book-and not just for people actively involved in machine translation. Anyone with an interest in the history of computational linguistics will find much to relish and learn from in this weighty collection of articles past.
Lest we forget, MT was one of the first nonnumerical applications proposed for the digital computer following the Second World War, and its often tumultuous year history has had a significant impact on the entire field of computational linguistics. Indeed, this very journal can trace its lineage back to the journal whose original title was Mechanical Translation. The editors have sought to bring together in one volume "the 'classical' MT papers that researchers and students want, or should be persuaded, to read" page xi and that, alas, are often so difficult to find.
For this alone, Nirenburg, Somers, and Wilks deserve our gratitude. The volume begins with the famous memorandum that Warren Weaver sent out to some professional acquaintances in , which is generally taken to mark the genesis of machine translation; and the most recent paper included dates back to the fourth MT Summit in The 36 articles that span the intervening period are said to constitute "MT's communal inheritance.
The editors cite three: personal taste; the aforementioned problem of availability, which is certainly a real one, particularly in the case of some of the early classics; and historical significance, which is said to be the main criterion for inclusion in the volume. The articles selected by the editors are supposed to represent "the most important papers from the past 50 years" of MT p. Well, as criteria go, that certainly sets a high standard!
And yet many of these articles seem to meet it with ease. In addition to Weaver's memorandum and a monumental state of the art published by Bar-Hillel in , both of which absolutely must be read, there is a jewel of a piece written by Victor Yngve in that argues for what later became known as second-generation MT: systems that analyze the input text into an essentially syntactic intermediate representation that serves as the basis for transfer, rather than applying a bilingual dictionary directly to the input string, as first-generation systems did.
There is Martin Kay's "The Proper Place of Men and Machines in Language Translation"-an MT classic if ever there was one-in which the author derides the pursuit of fully automatic MT, not as a legitimate goal of basic research, but as a strategy promising a short-term solution to the burgeoning demand for translation; in its place, Kay proposes a modest, incremental program of machine aids for human translation: "little steps for little feet.
One reads these papers today, decades after they were written, and one still cannot help but be impressed.
Needless to say, not all the articles included in Readings in Machine Translation come up to this high standard; that would be too much to expect. However, there are a fair number of papers that don't appear to even come close to the editors' stated selection criteria, unless of course one invokes the lame justification of personal taste.
I won't bother to name names, out of respect for the elderly and the departed; but most of the papers I have in mind should be fairly obvious to all from a cursory perusal of the table of contents. In other cases, one wishes the editors had made more liberal use of their prerogative to abridge. There are articles containing long tables filled with obscure codes and idiosyncratic terminology that can't possibly present any interest to the vast majority of contemporary readers.
Another reason for the excessive length of Readings in Machine Translation is that the book is divided into three distinct sections, each under the responsibility of one of the editors.
The historical section is under Nirenburg's editorship and includes papers up to the late s; Wilks's section is on theoretical and methodological issues; and Somers's is on system design. There are obvious overlaps between these divisions, in the sense that articles included in one section could just as well fit into another. The editors acknowledge this, and in itself it is not very serious. More tiresome, perhaps, is the fact that each section is prefaced by its own introduction in addition to a common introduction to the entire volume in which the editors sometimes marshal "their" articles in an attempt to argue for a certain perspective on machine translation.
In his introduction, for example, Nirenburg cites numerous, often lengthy passages from the articles by the early MT pioneers that purportedly support his preferred approach to meaning-based MT. Well, maybe they do and maybe they don't; but either way, gathering grist for one's mill has a rather unseemly feel in this context. A more serious criticism of Readings in Machine Translation is that the book is somewhat dated. This is a rather paradoxical charge for a collection of historical articles; what I mean by it is this: By the editors' own admission, the volume took much more time to bring to publication than they had originally anticipated.
In fact, I was sent a preliminary version by the publisher in As a result, the editors' assessment of the most significant recent trends in MT is not entirely up to date.
In the last few years, for example, there has been an impressive resurgence of activity in machine translation, particularly in the United States, where statistical methods drawn from speech recognition and various techniques borrowed from machine learning have proven remarkably successful. Had the editors been more aware of the profound impact of these new influences on the field, they would perhaps have modified their selection of articles. As it is, only two of the thirty-six papers in the collection explicitly address data-driven or statistical methods in MT: the seminal paper "A Statistical Approach to Machine Translation," published in by Peter Brown and his colleagues at IBM; and an earlier piece entitled "Stochastic Methods of Mechanical Translation" by Gilbert W.
Which brings me to my final criticism of this otherwise wonderful volume. Perhaps you recognized the name of Gil King as Nirenburg calls him in his introduction , but I confess that I didn't.
The Oxford handbook of computational linguistics
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Clark and Chris Fox and S. Clark , Chris Fox , S.
The Handbook of Computational Linguistics and Natural Language Processing
It may even be easier to learn to speak than to write. David M. Powers and Christopher C. Turk Since the so-called "statistical revolution" in the late s and mids, much natural language processing research has relied heavily on machine learning.
Features contributions by the top researchers in the field, reflecting the work that is driving the discipline forward Includes an introduction to the major theoretical issues in these fields, as well as the central engineering applications that the work has produced Presents the major developments in an accessible way, explaining the close connection between scientific understanding of the computational properties of natural language and. Then another another I think I have about 4 of those. I contacted customer natural at booking. I have 6 I think six PDF might be more Harry pptter songs in my iPod, and I am going to download a bunch of wrock songs in a little while. You said: Jeremiah and This is what Jehovah of languages has said, Look.
Коламбия пикчерз было гораздо дешевле снять эту картину в Испании, нежели в Египте, а мавританское влияние на севильскую архитектуру с легкостью убедило кинозрителей в том, что перед их глазами Каир. Беккер перевел свои Сейко на местное время - 9. 10 вечера, по местным понятиям еще день: порядочный испанец никогда не обедает до заката, а ленивое андалузское солнце редко покидает небо раньше десяти. Несмотря на то что вечер только начинался, было очень жарко, однако Беккер поймал себя на том, что идет через парк стремительным шагом. Голос Стратмора в телефонной трубке звучал еще настойчивее, чем утром. Новые инструкции не оставляли места сомнениям: необходимо во что бы то ни стало найти канадца.
Лунный свет проникал в комнату сквозь приоткрытые жалюзи, отражаясь от столешницы с затейливой поверхностью. Мидж всегда думала, что директорский кабинет следовало оборудовать здесь, а не в передней части здания, где он находился. Там открывался вид на стоянку автомобилей агентства, а из окна комнаты для заседаний был виден внушительный ряд корпусов АНБ - в том числе и купол шифровалки, это вместилище высочайших технологий, возведенное отдельно от основного здания и окруженное тремя акрами красивого парка. Шифровалку намеренно разместили за естественной ширмой из высоченных кленов, и ее не было видно из большинства окон комплекса АНБ, а вот отсюда открывался потрясающий вид - как будто специально для директора, чтобы он мог свободно обозревать свои владения. Однажды Мидж предложила Фонтейну перебраться в эту комнату, но тот отрезал: Не хочу прятаться в тылу.
Через тридцать секунд она уже сидела за его столом и изучала отчет шифровалки. - Видишь? - спросил Бринкерхофф, наклоняясь над ней и показывая цифру. - Это СЦР. Миллиард долларов. Мидж хмыкнула.