File Name: phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants .zip
Due to the increase of microbial resistance to antibiotics and the occurrence of side effects, use of medicinal plants with anti-microbial properties seems to be rational.
The in vitro antibacterial activity of various solvents and water extracts of aloe vera, neem , bryophyllum, lemongrass, tulsi , oregano, rosemary and thyme was assessed on 10 multi-drug resistant clinical isolates from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and two standard strains including Staphylococcus aureus ATCC and Escherichia coli ATCC The zone of inhibition as determined by agar well diffusion method varied with the plant extract, the solvent used for extraction, and the organism tested. Klebsiella pneumoniae 2, Escherichia coli 3 and Staphylococcus aureus 3 were resistant to the plant extracts tested.
DOI : The application of medicinal plants for combating various human ailments, as a food fortificant and additive have been adapted from ancient routine custom. Currently, developing countries use plants as a major source of primary health care. Besides, the emerging drug resistant pathogenic microbes encourage the utilization of medicinal plants as preeminent alternative sources of new bioactive substances. Extensive research findings have been reported in the last three decades.
Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Euphorbia helioscopia. Medicinal Plants have been used throughout the world by human beings as a drug and remedies for various diseases since time immemorial. A study was planned to count into the antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening of Euphorbia helioscopia.
The plants were gathered and tested against some standard strains and some human pathogenic microorganisms i. The concentrations of extracting samples and 1, mg mL-1 were used against pathogens. Ciprofloxacin was used as positive control in case of bacterial strains and Colfrimazol was used against the fungal strain while dimethyl sulfoxide as negative control. The outcomes indicated that the positive wells potency of Water extract had a 36 mm diameter of zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli and ethanol extract at 1, mg mL-1 had maximum 34 mm zone of inhibition against Bacillus subtilus 36 mm zone of inhibition against Klebsiella pneumonia and 33 mm of zone of inhibition against Trichoderma harzianum.
Likewise, water extract at a concentration of 1, mg mL-1 resulted highest value of zone of inhibition 36 mm against Staphylococcus aureus , a zone of inhibition mm against Salmonella typhi, 36 mm zone of inhibition against Pseudomonas aeruginosa , 32 mm zone of inhibition against Rhizopus nigricans , a 34 mm zone of inhibition against Acremonium and 34 mm zone of inhibition against Aspergillus niger.
The most susceptible bacteria were K. The ethanolic extract had tannins, lipid, total proteins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, Alkaloid and polyphenolics. The awareness of medicinal plants has long been traced for many centuries in different medical organizations such as Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha. In India, it is reported that conventional healers use 2, plant species and species of plants serve as regular sources of medicine Revathi and Parimelazhagan, In Pakistan about 6, species of higher plants have been reported and from these to species are used for medicinal uses.
Largely due to deficiency of proper health facilities the native medicinal plants have been especially used by the village community as a medical specialty based on long experiences of elders, and this data has been handed along orally from production to output without any written documents Nasrullah et al.
Long before man discovered the existence of germs, the estimate that certain plants had healing potential, indeed, that they contained what we would currently characterize as antimicrobial principles were well taken. Since antiquity, man has used plants to treat common infectious diseases and some of these traditional medications are even admitted as component of the habitual discourse of various maladies Rios and Recio, Ethnomedicinal studies are substantial in illuminating significant indigenous plant species, especially for the breakthrough of new crude drugs.
Documentation of indigenous medicinal knowledge of traditional plant species has contributed several vital modern drugs Mahmood et al. The family Euphorbiaceae is a big family of flowering plants with genera and about 7, species.
This family takes place principally in the tropics, with most of the species in the Indo-Malayan region and tropical America. A large variety occurs in tropical Africa, but they are not as abundant or varied as in these two other tropical regions. The leaves are alternate, rarely opposite, with stipules Mahbubur Rahman and Akter, They are mainly simple, but where compound, are always palmate, never pinnate.
Stipules may be reduced to hairs, glands, or thorns, or in succulent species are sometimes lacking. Leaves and stems of E. Additionally, the plant has been employed in studies for different pharmacological activities such as insulin secretagogin and antibacterial Saleem et al. The radially symmetrical flowers are unisexual, with the male and the female flowers usually occurring on the same plant. As can be expected from such a large family, there is a wide variety in the structure of the flowers.
They can be either monoecious or dioecious. The stamens the male organs can number from one to 10 or even more. The female flowers are hypogynous, that is, with superior ovaries. Species of Euphorbiaceae have been used by the local population of many countries in folk medicines as remedies against several diseases and complaints such as cancer, diabetes, diarrhea, heart diseases, hemorrhages, hepatitis, jaundice, malaria, ophthalmic diseases, rheumatism and scabies etc.
The plants of Euphorbiaceae are also known to cure gonorrhea, urino-genital infections, jaundice and are used as diuretic and astringent Kumar and Chaturvedi, Sun spurge, is an annual plant rising 10 to 50 cm high with erected reddish stem, oval alternate leaves and small yellow green flowers.
It is an endemic flora of North Africa and most of the Europe and Asia. Many secondary metabolites have been covered from sun spurge plant, including diterpenoid, triterpenoid, tannins and steroid, which offered to sun spurge herb a wide array of bioactive functions.
In fact, Euphorbia helioscopia plant was reported to possess antibacterial and antifungal effects Ben Mohamed Maoulainine et al. Plants of Euphorbia have been used in the traditional medicine for treatment of cancers, tumors and warts for hundreds of years. It is well known that they contain irritant and tumor-promoting ingredients. Rather, several species are used in folk medicine as drugs and crude materials for pharmaceutical preparations.
This work was therefore planned to produce a protocol for callus induction from leaf of E. Plant of Euphorbia helioscopia was collected from University Campus Peshawar Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan during April and their taxonomic identification was taken from senior botanist of the institution. The collected plants were held for five weeks 35 days in shade at room temperature.
When the plant becomes dry, it was established with the help of pestle and mortar for the preparation of extraction in Ethanol and distilled water. The powder materials of plant were weighted through Electrical balance and 75 mg powder were dissolved in 1, mL of distilled water and mL Ethanol in Borosilicate glass.
Ethyl alcohol and water solution were reserved for 72 hours 3 days in a shaker. After the shaking for 72 hours both solutions were filtered through Whitman filter paper No 1 and the filtrate collected in separate beakers. The weights of water filtrate were Ethanol and water were evaporated by the using of Rotatory Vacuum Evaporator. After the using of Rotatory Vacuum Evaporator, the water and Ethanol extract were poured into a china dish which were in crude form and place it in the water Bath on 55 oC for 2 hours.
For the perfect purification of extracts from water and Ethanol present in minor amount in extracts. The sterile vials were used for to keep the extract from contamination.
Two vials were weighted through Electrical balances which were When both extract completely dried, it was collected from china dish to these two separate sterile vials through stirrer.
The weights of the vials were increased. The weight of water vials reaches up to In the end, the pure weight of water extract was 2. Both values were saved in the refrigerator at 40 oC for the prevention of pollution and other bacterial or fungal attacks. For the preparation of stock extractions and dilutions Water and Ethanolic extracts of 2. For the preparation of serial dilution, the Eppendorf tube was applied.
This tube was labeled from 1 to 4 4 tubes were used. All the Eppendorf tubes were shaken through vortex mixer. The bacterial inoculation loops were disinfected through the fire with the help of spirit lamp.
The whole work was done in the laminar hood for the prevention from microbes or contamination. Staphylococcus aureus was a standard strain and Nine pathogenic strains were used for microbial activities collected from main pathology Lab Khyber Teaching Hospital and North West Hospital, Peshawar Pakistan through sterile cotton Swabs.
The antimicrobials present within the plant extract can diffuse out into the medium and interact in a plate freshly seeded with the test organisms. The ensuing zones of inhibition were uniformly circular as there was a confluent lawn of growth. The diameter of zone of inhibition was evaluated in millimeters mm. For negative and positive controls, 0. The method followed during this experimental work was well methodical. The antibacterial screening was conducted for Ethanolic extract and distill water extract of E.
Antibiotics provide the primary basis for the therapy of microbial bacterial and fungal infections. Since the discovery of these antibiotics and their uses as chemotherapeutic agents there was a belief in the medical fraternity that this would lead to the eventual eradication of infectious diseases.
Still, overuse of antibiotics has become the major component in the emergence and diffusion of multi- drug resistant forms of various groups of microorganisms Harbottle et al. Test cultures used for antimicrobial screening were Staphylococcus aureus Gram positive, Escherichia coli Gram negative and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Gram negative.
Antibacterial activities of the plant were held out by agar well diffusion method as described by Carron et al. Bacteria strains were first cultured on nutrient broth and incubated for 24 hours prior to experiments. Nutrient agar was melted, cooled to 40 oC and poured into sterilized Petri dishes. Wells were then immersed in media using 6 mm diameter with the avail of the sterile metal cork borer and keeping 24 mm between two adjacent wells.
These procedures were repeated thrice turned the plate between each streaking. The shells were then incubated for 24 hours at oC the plates were then observed for Zones of Inhibition. All the experiments were conducted in triplicate. The resistance of the pathogenic fungi to certain drugs is the major problem nowadays. Fungi are mutating to allow a broad reach of antibiotics.
Test species used for this activity were Aspergillus niger , Trichodeema harzianum , Rhizopus nigricans , Acremonium. For performing this activity, the procedure as described by Humeera, was followed.
SDA media were prepared autoclaved and poured into Petri dishes. For check in sterility, plates were incubated for 24 hours at 28 oC.
On the next day-old culture of test fungi was inoculated into Petri dishes and incubated for 7 days at 28 oC, as a week-old culture is required.
Slants were prepared by pouring 5 mL autoclaved SDA media to the test tubes. The test tubes were then kept in an incline position to solidify and make slants. They were incubated for 24 hours and sterility was checked. On the next day inoculums were taken from the 7 days old culture and applied on their respective slants. After 7 days results were studied by measuring the linear development on the test tube.
Antimicrobial activity of extracts against E. The analysis of results indicated that the highest zone of inhibition ZOI was recorded by water extract in positive well potency which is 36 mm against E.
Antimicrobial activity of extracts against Bacillus subtilis. Analysis of results presented in Table 2 revealed that zone of inhibition was significantly affected by the solvent of plant extracts against Bacillus subtilis. The highest zone of inhibition 34 mm was recorded in ethanol solvent extract in well potency of 1, mg mL-1 against B.
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Metrics details. Acalypha manniana Euphorbiaceae is a plant popularly used in Cameroon and in several parts of Africa for the treatment of various microbial diseases like diarrhea and skin infections. The present study was designed to evaluate the phytochemical composition, antimicrobial and radical-scavenging activities of A. The methanol extract was partitioned into hexane, ethyl acetate and residual fractions and phytochemical analysis was conducted using standard methods. The broth microdilution method was used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity against nine bacterial species and four dermatophyte species. The free radical scavenging activities of the methanol extract and its fractions were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl DPPH assay. The results obtained showed that A.
Natural drugs may exhibit many biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-diabetic and antioxidant. Five medicinal plants were.
Three medicinal plants, Erythrina excelsa, Phytolacca dodecandra and Cucumis aculeatus , collected from Siaya and Migori District in Kenya, were screened for the presence of phytochemicals. These plants have diverse compounds including phenolics, terpenoids, anthraquinones, alkaloids and flavonoids, whereby the terpenoids were the most abundant. The antimicrobial activity of the hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water extracts from the stem barks, root barks and the leaves of selected medicinal plants were assayed against eight microorganisms.
Kaisarun Akter, Emma C. Barnes, Joseph J. Vemulpad, Joanne F.
Ты уходишь. - Ты же знаешь, что я бы осталась, - сказала она, задержавшись в дверях, - но у меня все же есть кое-какая гордость. Я просто не желаю играть вторую скрипку - тем более по отношению к подростку.
Росио изо всех сил уперлась руками в его массивные плечи. - Милый, я… я сейчас задохнусь! - Ей стало дурно. Все ее внутренности сдавило этой немыслимой тяжестью. - Despiertate! - Ее пальцы инстинктивно вцепились ему в волосы. Просыпайся. И в этот момент Росио почувствовала под пальцами что-то теплое и липкое.
Он отстаивал перед директором свои идеи со спокойствием невозмутимого боксера-профессионала. Даже президент Соединенных Штатов не решался бросать вызов Фонтейну, что не раз позволял себе Стратмор. Для этого нужен был политический иммунитет - или, как в случае Стратмора, политическая индифферентность.
Фонтейн повернулся к Сьюзан. - Как вы думаете, мисс Флетчер. Сьюзан задумалась. Она чувствовала, что здесь что-то не то, но не могла сообразить, что. Она достаточно хорошо знала Танкадо и знала, что он боготворил простоту. Его доказательства, его программы всегда отличали кристальная ясность и законченность.
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