Computer Aided Inspection And Quality Control Pdf

computer aided inspection and quality control pdf

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The use of the computers for quality control of the product is called as the computer aided quality control or CAQC. The two major parts of quality control are inspection and testing, which are traditionally performed manually with the help of gages, measuring devices and the testing apparatus. The two major parts of computer aided quality control are computer aided inspection CAI and computer aided testing CAT.

The feature also supports Microsoft Access and SQL Server database formats for combining Verisurf inspection data with numerous enterprise databases. Verisurf X provides a common software platform to drive all digital metrology devices. Benefits include reduced training time across multiple devices, consistent reporting formats, and support for upstream enterprise databases. Engineers have wanted to harness the power of MDB for years. Making the CAD model the authority removes the ambiguity, conflict, and doubt that arise when drawings and models co-exist.

Unit-7 (CAQC)

Manual inspection is generally a time-consuming procedure which involves precise, yet monotonous work. If often requires that parts be removed from the vicinity of the production machines to a separate inspection area. This causes delays and often constitutes a bottleneck in the manufacturing schedule. Inherent in the use of statistical sampling procedures is acknowledgment of the risk that some defective parts will slip through.

There is another aspect of the traditional QC inspection process which detracts from its usefulness. It is often performed after the fact. The measurements are taken and the quality is determined after the parts are already made. If the parts are defective, they must be scrapped or reworked at a cost which is often greater than their original cost to manufacture. All of these various factors are driving the quality control function toward what we are calling computer-aided quality control CAQC.

Other terms that have been applied to describe this movement are "computer-aided inspection" CAI and "computer-aided testing" CAT. The objectives of computer-aided quality control are ambitious, yet straight forward.

They are: 1. To improve product quality 2. To increase productivity in the inspection process 3. To increase productivity and reduce lead times in manufacturing The strategy for achieving these objectives is basically to automate the inspection process through the application of computers combined with advanced sensor technology. The design standards generally relate to the materials, dimensions and tolerances, appearance, performance, reliability, and any other measurable characteristic of the product.

Quality assurance QA is concerned with those activities which will maximize the probability that the product and its components will be manufactured within the design specifications. These activities should start in the product design area, where the designer can make decisions among alternatives that might have quality consequences. QA activities continue in manufacturing planning, where decisions relative to production equipment, tooling, methods, and motivation of employees will all have an influence on quality.

Quality control is concerned with those activities related to inspection of product and component quality, detection of poor quality, and corrective action necessary to eliminate poor quality.

These activities also involve the planning of inspection procedures and the specification of the gages and measuring instruments needed to perform the inspections. Statistical QC is generally divided into two categories: acceptance sampling and control charts. Acceptance sampling is a procedure in which a sample is drawn from a batch of parts in order to assess the quality level of the batch and to determine whether the batch should be accepted or rejected.

Acceptance sampling is based on the statistical notion that the quality of a random sample drawn from a larger population will be representative of the quality of that population. Control charts are used to keep a record over time of certain measured data colected from a process.

A company would use control charts to monitor its own production. The central line indicates the expected quality level of the process. The upper and lower control limits UCL and LCL are statistical measures of the variation in the process which would be tolerated without concluding that the process has erred.

Both acceptance sampling and control charts can be applied to two situations in quality control: fraction defects and measured variables. In the fraction-defect case, the objective is to determine what proportion of the sample and the population from which it came are defective.

In the measured-variable case, the object is to determine the value of the quality characteristic of interest e. This requires the use of a measuring instrument of some kind e. Inspection is normally used to examine a component of a product in relation to the design standards specified for it.

For a mechanical component, this would probably be concerned with the dimensions of the part. The corfion situations that warrant inspection are: Incoming raw materials At various stages during manufacturing e. In this usage, testing consists of the observation of the final product during operation under actual or simulated conditions. If the product passes the test, it is deemed suitable for sale. Several categories of tests used for final product evaluation: Simple functional tests under normal or simulated normal operating conditions Functional tests in which the product is tested under extreme usually adverse conditions Fatigue or wear tests to determine how long the product will function until Failure.

Overload tests to determine the level of safety factor built into the product Environmental testing to determine how well the product will perform under different environments e. Computer-assisted inspection and testing methods form only part, certainly a major part, of computeraided quality control. The implications of the use of computer-aided quality control are important. The automated methods of CAQC will result in significant changes from the traditional concepts and methods.

The following list will summarize the important effects likely to result from CAQC. Inspection during production will be integrated into the manufacturing process rather than requiring that the parts be taken to some inspection area. This will help to reduce the elapsed time to complete the parts.

On line will have to be accomplished in much less time than with current manual techniques. The use of noncontact sensors will become much more widely used with computer-aided inspection.

With contact inspection devices, the part must usually be stopped and often repositioned to allow the inspection device to be applied properly. With noncontact sensor devices, the part can often be inspected "on the fly. The on-line noncontact sensors will be utilized as the measurement component of computerized feedback control systems.

These systems will be capable of making adjustments to the process variables based on analysis of the data collected by the sensors. Data would be plotted. This would not only allow out of tolerance conditions to be identified, but gradual shifts in the process could also be uncovered and corrective action taken. By regulating the process in this manner, parts will be made much closer to the desired nominal dimension rather than merely within tolerance.

Quality feedback control systems will help to reduce scrap losses and improve product quality. With computer-aided inspection technology, it may no longer be necessary to settle for less than perfection.

Robots will be used increasingly in future inspection applications 7. There will also be applications for the computer in quality assurance as well as QC. Quality control personnel will have to become more computer-wise and technologically sophisticated to operate the more complex inspection and testing equipment and to manage the information that will result from these more automated methods. Most of these machines today are either controlled by NC or computers.

The coordinate measuring machine CMM is the most prominent example of the equipment used for contact inspection of workparts. It consists of a table which holds the part in a fixed, registered position and a movable head which holds a sensing probe.

The probe can be moved in three directions, corresponding to the x, y, and z coordinates. During operation, the probe is brought into contact with the part surface to be measured and the three coordinate positions are indicated to a high level of accuracy.

Today's coordinate measuring machines are computer controlled. The operation of the machine is similar to an NC machine tool in which the movement of the measuring probe is either tape controlled or computer controlled. Programs and coordinate data can be downloaded from a central computer, much in the manner of direct numerical control. Savings in inspection time by using coordinate measuring machines are significant. Other advantages include consistency in the inspection process from one part to the next which cannot be matched by manual inspection, and reductions in production delays to get approval of the first workpiece in a batch.

The coordinate measuring machine is physically located away from the production machine, usually in a separate area of the shop. Accordingly, the parts must be transported from the pro duction area to the CMM.

In fact, if inspection is required at several different stages of production, several moves witl be involved. One possible approach to overcome this problem is to use inspection probes mounted in the spindle of the machine tool.

These inspection probes are contact sensing devices that operate with the machine tool much like the coordinate measuring machine. Optical a. Machine vision b. Scanning laser beam devices c. Photogrammetry 2. Non Optical a. Electric Fiel techniques b. Radiation techniques c. It usually eliminates the need to reposition the workpart. Noncontact inspection is usually much faster than contact inspection. It eliminates mechanical wear encountered with the contacting inspection probe because it eliminates the probe.

It reduces potential danger to people, who must touch a hazardous material if contact inspection is used. It removes the possibility of damage to the surface of a part which migh result during contact inspection. Machine vision. Other names given to these systems include microprocessor-based television and computer vision. The typical machine vision system consists of a TV camera, a digital computer, and an interface between them that functions as a preprocessor.

The combination of system hardware and software digitizes the picture and analyzes the image by comparing it with data stored in memory. The data are often in the form of a limited number of models of the objects which are to be inspected. There are several limitations of machine vision; The first limitation is concerned with the problem of dividing the picture into picture elements.

This is very similar to the problem encountered in the development of graphics terminals for computer-aided design. A second limitation is that the object in front of the camera must be capable of being divided into areas of contrasting lightness and darkness.

Third limitations is on the capability of machine vision systems recognize the object in the viewing area. Machine vision inspection problems can be divided into two categories: 1. Noncontact gaging of dimensions - Noncontact gaging in machine vision involves the inspection of part size and other features where it is not necessary to process the image of the entire part out line, only those portions that must be examined for dimensional accuracy.

During setup for an inspection, a parts-training program is used to view the workpart of interest on a TV monitor. With the image in fixed position on the screen, the operator manipulates a cursor to define the edges of interest and to apply an appropriate scale factor to establish the correct units of measure.

Unit-7 (CAQC)

Login Now. The use of the computers for quality control of the product is called as the computer aided quality control or CAQC. The two major parts of quality control are inspection and testing, which are traditionally performed manually with the help of gages, measuring devices and the testing apparatus. The two major parts of computer aided quality control are computer aided inspection CAI and computer aided testing CAT. The main objectives of the CAQC are to improve the quality of the product, increase the productivity in the inspection process and reduce the lead times in manufacturing. Quality of Design- Several factors that influence the design quality are Choice of right materials, Design involving minimum number of parts, Use of standardization and variety reduction, Economic use of materials. The implementation of CAQC in the company results in the major change in the way the process of quality control is carried out in the company.

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Control of quality of a finished engineering product has been performed traditionally by manual inspection methods and statistical sampling procedures. Manual.


Modern Inspection Techniques for Computer Aided Quality Control

Manual inspection is generally a time-consuming procedure which involves precise, yet monotonous work. If often requires that parts be removed from the vicinity of the production machines to a separate inspection area. This causes delays and often constitutes a bottleneck in the manufacturing schedule. Inherent in the use of statistical sampling procedures is acknowledgment of the risk that some defective parts will slip through.

Control of quality of a finished engineering product has been performed traditionally by manual inspection methods and statistical sampling procedures. Manual inspection methods are generally monotonous and time consuming apart from the fact that the product to be inspected is to be removed to a distant inspection area, which often constitutes a bottleneck in the manufacturing schedule. On the other hand, the use of statistical sampling procedures involve the risk of some defective parts slipping through the inherent drawback in the above mentioned traditional methods of quality control is that the defects in the product are detected after they are made and hence they must be scrapped or reworked at a cost which is often greater than their original manufacturing cost. Unable to display preview.

Incoming raw material During process of manufacturing. After production of component. Before shipping the component to the customer.

Manual inspection is generally a time-consuming procedure which involves precise, yet monotonous work. If often requires that parts be removed from the vicinity of the production machines to a separate inspection area.

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Computer Aided Quality Control (CAQC): Use of Computer in Quality Control

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