File Name: power and politics in organizational behaviour .zip
- A Case Study on Power and Politics in Organizations
- Chapter 13. Power and Politics
- Power and Politics - OB
Kelli J. Chapter Learning Objectives After studying this chapter, you should be able to: Define power, and contrast leadership and power. Contrast the five bases of power. Identify nine power or influence tactics and their contingencies.
A Case Study on Power and Politics in Organizations
Organizational politics are informal, unofficial, and sometimes behind-the-scenes efforts to sell ideas, influence an organization, increase power, or achieve other targeted objectives. Politics has been around for millennia. Aristotle wrote that politics stems from a diversity of interests, and those competing interests must be resolved in some way. Today, work in organizations requires skill in handling conflicting agendas and shifting power bases.
Although often portrayed negatively, organizational politics are not inherently bad. Of course, individuals within organizations can waste time overly engaging in political behavior. In our discussion about power, we saw that power issues often arise around scarce resources. Organizations typically have limited resources that must be allocated in some way.
Individuals and groups within the organization may disagree about how those resources should be allocated, so they may naturally seek to gain those resources for themselves or for their interest groups, which gives rise to organizational politics.
Simply put, with organizational politics, individuals ally themselves with like-minded others in an attempt to win the scarce resources. Politics are a part of organizational life, because organizations are made up of different interests that need to be aligned.
A person engaging in these types of political behaviors is said to be engaging in self-serving behavior that is not sanctioned by the organization. Examples of these self-serving behaviors include bypassing the chain of command to get approval for a special project, going through improper channels to obtain special favors, or lobbying high-level managers just before they make a promotion decision.
These types of actions undermine fairness in the organization, because not everyone engages in politicking to meet their own objectives. Researchers have found that if employees think their organization is overly driven by politics, the employees are less committed to the organization, perform worse on the job, have higher levels of job anxiety, and have a higher incidence of depressed mood.
The negative side of organizational politics is more likely to flare up in times of organizational change or when there are difficult decisions to be made and a scarcity of resources that breeds competition among organizational groups. To minimize overly political behavior, company leaders can provide equal access to information, model collaborative behavior, and demonstrate that political maneuvering will not be rewarded or tolerated. Furthermore, leaders should encourage managers throughout the organization to provide high levels of feedback to employees about their performance.
High levels of feedback reduce the perception of organizational politics and improve employee morale and work performance. Remember that politics can be a healthy way to get things done within organizations. There are a number of potential individual antecedents of political behavior. We will start off by understanding the role that personality has in shaping whether someone will engage in political behavior. Individuals who are high in internal locus of control believe that they can make a difference in organizational outcomes.
They do not leave things to fate. Therefore, we would expect those high in internal locus of control to engage in more political behavior. Research shows that these individuals perceive politics around them to a greater degree. Investment in the organization is also related to political behavior. If a person is highly invested in an organization either financially or emotionally, they will be more likely to engage in political behavior because they care deeply about the fate of the organization.
Finally, expectations of success also matter. When a person expects that they will be successful in changing an outcome, they are more likely to engage in political behavior.
Think about it: If you know there is no chance that you can influence an outcome, why would you spend your valuable time and resources working to effect change? Figure Scarcity of resources breeds politics. When resources such as monetary incentives or promotions are limited, people see the organization as more political.
Any type of ambiguity can relate to greater organizational politics. For example, role ambiguity allows individuals to negotiate and redefine their roles. This freedom can become a political process.
Research shows that when people do not feel clear about their job responsibilities, they perceive the organization as more political. Ambiguity also exists around performance evaluations and promotions. These human resource practices can lead to greater political behavior, such as impression management, throughout the organization. As you might imagine, democratic decision making leads to more political behavior. Since many people have a say in the process of making decisions, there are more people available to be influenced.
Author and consultant Patrick Lencioni recommends the following four steps for overcoming ineffective politics due to turf wars. Taking these four steps can help overcome this situation:. Source: Adapted from information in Lencioni, P.
Silos, politics and turf wars: A leadership fable about destroying the barriers that turn colleagues into competitors. New York: Jossey-Bass. Organizational politics is a natural part of organizational life. Organizations that are driven by unhealthy levels of political behavior suffer from lowered employee organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and performance as well as higher levels of job anxiety and depression.
Organizational Politics. Antecedents of Political Behavior Individual Antecedents There are a number of potential individual antecedents of political behavior. OB Toolbox: Overcoming Ineffective Politics Author and consultant Patrick Lencioni recommends the following four steps for overcoming ineffective politics due to turf wars.
Taking these four steps can help overcome this situation: Create a thematic goal. The goal should be something that everyone in the organization can believe in, such as, for a hospital, giving the best care to all patients.
This goal should be a single goal, qualitative, time-bound, and shared. Create a set of defining objectives. This step should include objectives that everyone agrees will help bring the thematic goal to fruition. Create a set of ongoing standard operating objectives. This process should be done within each area so that the best operating standards are developed. These objectives should also be shared across the organization so everyone is aware of them.
Create metrics to measure them. Measuring whether the standard operating objectives get done is a vital step in the process. Key Takeaway Organizational politics is a natural part of organizational life. Exercises Do you think politics are a positive or negative thing for organizations? Describe an example of a negative outcome due to politics. Describe an example of a positive outcome due to politics. Can you think of additional individual or organizational antecedents of political behavior?
What political behaviors have you observed within school groups or your workplace? Were they successful? Why or why not? Licenses and Attributions. CC licensed content, Original.
Chapter 13. Power and Politics
There are few business activities more prone to a credibility gap than the way in which executives approach organizational life. A sense of disbelief occurs when managers purport to make decisions in rationalistic terms while most observers and participants know that personalities and politics play a significant if not an overriding role. Where does the […]. Where does the error lie? In the theory which insists that decisions should be rationalistic and nonpersonal? Or in the practice which treats business organizations as political structures? Whatever else organizations may be problem-solving instruments, sociotechnical systems, reward systems, and so on , they are political structures.
Organizational politics are informal, unofficial, and sometimes behind-the-scenes efforts to sell ideas, influence an organization, increase power, or achieve other targeted objectives. Politics has been around for millennia. Aristotle wrote that politics stems from a diversity of interests, and those competing interests must be resolved in some way. Today, work in organizations requires skill in handling conflicting agendas and shifting power bases. Although often portrayed negatively, organizational politics are not inherently bad.
- A behavioral response to the exercise of power. Sources of Power: v Five Sources of Power (French and Raven, ). 1. Referent or.
Power and Politics - OB
Power and politics are considered as major aspects of organization. Power and politics play a huge role in industry and govern how to make decisions, interaction of employees with one another. Both concepts fundamentally influence the behaviour of individuals and group and assist in problem solving in organizational setting.
After reading this chapter, you should be able to do the following:. His Apple II ushered in the personal computer era in , and the graphical interface of the Macintosh in set the standard that all other PCs emulated. His company Pixar defined the computer-animated feature film.
Positive and Negative Consequences of Power
Конечно, согласился. Вы же мой шеф. Вы заместитель директора АНБ. Он не мог отказаться. - Ты права, - проворчал Стратмор. - Поэтому я его и попросил.
Давайте же, ребята. -сказал Джабба. - Вы же учились в колледжах. Ну, кто-нибудь. Разница между ураном и плутонием.
Никто не сомневался, что АНБ проиграло сражение. Цель была достигнута. Все глобальное электронное сообщество было обведено вокруг пальца… или так только. ГЛАВА 5 Куда все подевались? - думала Сьюзан, идя по пустому помещению шифровалки. - Ничего себе чрезвычайная ситуация. Хотя большинство отделов АНБ работали в полном составе семь дней в неделю, по субботам в шифровалке было тихо. По своей природе математики-криптографы - неисправимые трудоголики, поэтому существовало неписаное правило, что по субботам они отдыхают, если только не случается нечто непредвиденное.