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- Social Policy and the Welfare State
- What is social policy? Is it like social work?
- What is social policy? Is it like social work?
The developments and changes in the social life have led to change in the social needs. Therefore, problems and their solutions also change.
Social policy is concerned with the ways societies across the world meet human needs for security, education, work, health and wellbeing. Social policy addresses how states and societies respond to global challenges of social, demographic and economic change, and of poverty, migration and globalisation. Social policy analyses the different roles of: national governments, the family, civil society, the market, and international organisations in providing services and support across the life course from childhood to old age. These services and support include child and family support, schooling and education, housing and neighbourhood renewal, income maintenance and poverty reduction, unemployment support and training, pensions, health and social care.
Social Policy and the Welfare State
The developments and changes in the social life have led to change in the social needs. Therefore, problems and their solutions also change. The industrial revolution which realized in the eighteenth century had some important impacts not only on the economic life but also on social structure. It was aimed to solve social problems and ensure prosperity through social policies, which is a multidisciplinary field, and consequently, the concept of welfare state emerged.
The states, which had liberal concerns and traditional protection functions and reached a powerful position with their internationalist approaches, underwent a transformation period because of the economic and social developments which took place in the last quarter of the twentieth century. It has been subject of criticism that states increased the social expenses to satisfy the social needs and therefore caused an economic crisis in this period when the effects of globalization were discussed.
In this study, the change and transformation process in the welfare states and their social policies at the global scale will be handled conceptually and from the historical development perspective.
Making determinations about the past and present, as well as having assumptions for future, this study aims to contribute to literature. Public Economics and Finance. Social policy is an inclusive disciplinary, which means to provide solutions to address needs of social life.
Social problems change based on economic and environmental factors. These changes also differ based on social structure and state policies. The historical background of social policies is in parallel with important events in the human history. An important cornerstone in the world history, industrial revolution, is an economic revolution on one side, but it increased the social problems on the other side. From industrial perspective, societies can be regarded as preindustrial society, industrial society, and postindustrial society.
It is also possible to say that social policies that provided solutions to social problems also changed based on the conditions of the period.
It is seen that traditional methods were used to satisfy social needs, and the groups in need of protection were tried to be protected through social aid and services in the preindustrial period. The period which began with the industrial revolution caused varied social problems as from the second half of eighteenth century. Seeking solutions to address the poverty and social imbalance, which were caused by the industrialization, social policy tried to make balance between economy and social policies.
The migrations to industrialized regions with the impact of industrialization caused new professions, negative life and work conditions, and poverty. In the face of this change in the demographic structure, states adopted the liberal economic understanding as a solution.
Free market economy that emerged as a result of concerns that state interventions would damage economic and social balances helped a part of society to have welfare but caused workers who constituted the majority of society to impoverish. Because social expectations that the state should meet social needs increased, the state got a new character to solve social problems.
Affected by the wars which broke out in the first half of twentieth century and economic crisis, the concept of state changed in favor of social policies. However, also affected by globalization, the interventionist approach of welfare state to ensure economic and social welfare failed to ensure economic growth, and the position of state was discussed again.
In this new period, where the increase of social expenditures and taxes was perceived as a threat, it was suggested that the social responsibilities of the state should be reduced. The crises beginning in s and the problems which increased with the effect of globalization led to a transformation in the welfare state. The crisis of welfare state and the constantly increasing discussion about the role of state to determine social policies caused states to plunge into new quests.
Although the quests for the welfare state of Golden Age were different, it is possible to say that the basic attitudes were neoliberal attitudes like increasing the effectiveness of local administrations, leaving ensuring welfare ton on profit organizations, and leaving social services to private sector. In this period, social policies are determined by civil society, international, and supranational organizations instead of traditional means, and social policy understanding turns into new forms.
In spite of all criticisms, welfare state still regulates and implements social policies today. Exposed to some transformations and to some extent replaced by neoliberal policies as a result of changes caused by the globalization and information age, the welfare state is predicted to continue its existence in new forms and remains as an important power to regulate social policies in future.
In this study which has been made under the light of this information and predictions, first of all, the conceptual foundations, targets, and means of social policy will be explained with the factors which paved the way for its emergence in the historical process. After that, the concept of welfare state and the effects and events, which paved the way for its emergence, will be handled in the historical process.
Welfare state crisis and globalization will be explained under different headings and determinations, and predictions will be made about today and future, discussing their impact on the social policy. Some authors argue that these two concepts have the same meaning but some others argue that social policy is a frame concept which encompasses various policies, including social welfare policy [ 1 ].
Differences regarding the definition of social policy also arise from periodic conditions. To Lauber, social policy is a set of measurements taken at national level in order to change and regulate the financial and cultural life conditions in a definite period of time.
Albrech defines social policy as all measures and institutions that are taken to protect the part of society which is in need of economic protection and to ensure social security and peace [ 2 ]. Marshall defines social policy as a set of policies developed by state to ensure welfare in order that it obtains service and income. Hagenbuch asserts that social policy is an effort to make sure that individuals have minimum standards and opportunities.
In narrow sense, social policy is an attitude to address the disputes, imbalances, and conflict of interests between employers and employees and to ensure harmony between classes in capitalist systems [ 3 , 4 , 5 ]. In narrow sense, the aim of social policies is to find solutions for the problems emerging in industrials societies. From this perspective, it serves ensuring the social justice for ending the social inequalities that have been caused by the industrial revolution in social policy.
In narrow sense, it represents the policies for making a balance between labor and capital because it encompasses only problems of worker and labor classes [ 6 ]. These policies also include the provision of social justice. In narrow sense, political policy approaches the working life as the basic element that can explain the society. In this context, it also deals with issues such as wages, working conditions, trade unionism, and collective bargaining [ 7 ].
In a broad sense, the concept of social policy means comprehensive practices which address not only the problems and needs of working class but also those of the other segments of society [ 8 ]. With a definition from this perspective, it is possible to say social policy discipline addresses the problems of urbanization, environment, health, and education and those of all segments of society such as workers, the disabled, the elders, children, and immigrants.
In a board sense, social policy emerged together with the concept of welfare state after World War II. Therefore, social policy includes health services, social security, city, environment, and struggling against unemployment and poverty that affect social welfare.
In a broad sense, the final target of all these practices is to ensure social peace, social justice, and equality between different groups [ 9 ]. Social policy is determined on the basis of redistribution. The regulatory and distributive view of policies serves to ensure that everyone living in society has social freedoms and equal opportunities [ 10 ]. Ensuring the welfare of each individual is the main objective of the state and other organizations that are social policy practitioners.
The members of society have such needs as education, social security, health services, and housing. Social policy aims to ensure the welfare of individuals through legislative regulations. Because social policy is affected by social developments, it changes based on the needs of individuals. State makes new regulations based on needs. It is possible to make separate regulations for those who are in need of protection from social policy perspective for children and youth, for the disabled, for families with low income, and for the elders.
The factors which affect and determine social policy are not only the needs of society and individuals but also are ideological movements, crime rates, unemployment, media, politics, industrial groups, and violence, such economic factors as debit and recession and the nature of welfare state social democratic, liberal, etc.
Social policy can be defined as an area consisting of decisions taken with the participation of many individuals and parties, which is put in force after the state determines its basis [ 12 ]. There is a mutual interaction between social policy and economic policies [ 3 ]. Thus, the development of a country is not possible only through economic growth but also by achieving a fair and balanced growth to solve social problems.
From this perspective, the problems in economy and those in social policy need to be handled together. To achieve its goals, social policy needs to have some principles regarding the policies it will determine. The social policy, which is put in force by the state and other institutions, affects the welfare of society directly. The subjects and basic principles related with social policies are social needs and social problems, equal rights and social justice, efficiency, equity and choice, altruism, reciprocity and obligation, and division, difference, and exclusion [ 13 ].
Welfare state should provide some rights to the people. These are elaborated below. Equality: Achieving equality underlies social policies. Resources need to be distributed fairly in order to achieve equality. Equality has different types: equal outcome, equal opportunity, or equal treatment. Equal opportunity: It means that equal groups should be treated equally. Equal opportunity needs to be given to people regardless of their sex or group.
Moreover, all people must have the same opportunities in educational system or in the labor market. Need: Basic needs are food, caring, and housing.
Needs are not limited, and it is not certain which needs should be covered by states. Freedom and rights: There are different types of rights.
Civil rights mean the absence of arbitrary arrest and detention but having freedom to discuss any opinion. Social rights mean social welfare and social security, right to education. Political rights include voting and joining political parties and freedom to explain opinion in a democratic way.
All of these rights are provided by welfare state. The individuals who live in society are bound to state through the bond of citizenship. The main goal of social policies is to ensure that everyone in society lives in harmony, afar from conflicts. Thus, the target is to ensure social justice, social development, social balance, social integration, and social peace [ 7 ].
Thanks to social justice , everyone in society will have equal rights in the face of equal risks. In this way, the inequalities and differences caused by the economic chances are eliminated.
All the policies that ensure that everyone has fair opportunities with regard to income, taxes, wages, education, and social security contribute to the development of social justice. Ensuring the social balance is possible if everyone in society lives in harmony and balance. Therefore, social differences need to be reduced. Especially the differences and inequalities, with regard to opportunities, of the individuals living in different regions cause this balance and harmony to deteriorate.
It is one of the main objectives of social policy practitioners to eliminate the differences regarding the development level and to ensure that everyone benefits from the same social services. Social peace is ensured through policies aimed at eliminating the factors that lead to the deterioration of the balance within the social structure.
Especially in the capitalist system, the social differences created by the free market can hinder solidarity throughout the society. For the creation of a society dominated by harmony and reconciliation, policies should be implemented in order to eliminate the negative effects on the psychology of society.
Social integration refers to the minimization of political and economic factors that negatively affect unity and solidarity in society. Education, culture, and moral values are issues that affect social resolution in this sense.
What is social policy? Is it like social work?
Social Development and Public Policy pp Cite as. It is commonly observed that levels of economic development tend to be roughly correlated with levels of social development in countries throughout the world. This observable cross-country correlation, however, does not necessarily indicate a direct causal relationship between economic and social development in any particular case. The existence of numerous outliers — countries in which social indicators are either lower or higher than expected based on their economic indicators — suggests that social development is a complex process influenced by a variety of factors. In particular, the ability of some countries to reach a level of social development distinctly superior to what would be expected on the basis of their level of per capita income suggests that social development need not wait for economic development, but can — and indeed should — be specifically and deliberately pursued by countries at every level of economic development.
What is social policy? Is it like social work?
Adios, Senor Becker… La sangre de Cristo, la сора de la salvacion. Терпкий аромат красного вина ударил в ноздри Беккера, когда падре Херрера опустил перед ним серебряную, отполированную миллионами рук чашу. Немного рано для алкогольных напитков, подумал Беккер, наклоняясь.
А у входа толпились бандиты. - Внимание! - скомандовал Фонтейн.
Professor Lucinda Platt
Тишина. Он тихонько толкнул дверь, и та отворилась. Беккер с трудом сдержал крик ужаса. Меган сидела на унитазе с закатившимися вверх глазами. В центре лба зияло пулевое отверстие, из которого сочилась кровь, заливая лицо.
- Северная Дакота - это Хейл.
Через девятнадцать лет, в возрасте тридцати шести лет, она лежала в родильном отделении больницы, страдая от внутреннего кровотечения, и знала, что умирает. Она не знала лишь того, что смерть избавит ее от еще большего ужаса: ее единственный ребенок родится калекой. Отец Энсея так ни разу и не взглянул на сына. Ошеломленный потерей жены и появлением на свет неполноценного, по словам медсестер, ребенка, которому скорее всего не удастся пережить ночь, он исчез из больницы и больше не вернулся.
Она с самого начала возражала против его кандидатуры, но АНБ посчитало, что другого выхода. Хейл появился в порядке возмещения ущерба. После фиаско Попрыгунчика. Четыре года назад конгресс, стремясь создать новый стандарт шифрования, поручил лучшим математикам страны, иными словами - сотрудникам АНБ, написать новый супералгоритм. Конгресс собирался принять закон, объявляющий этот новый алгоритм национальным стандартом, что должно было решить проблему несовместимости, с которой сталкивались корпорации, использующие разные алгоритмы.
Сьюзан, - сказал Стратмор, уже теряя терпение, - директор не имеет к этому никакого отношения. Он вообще не в курсе дела.