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- Gender and International Relations (eBook, PDF)
- Gender and International Relations (eBook, PDF)
- Seeing Gender in International Security
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Although international officials claim that the role of women is very important in preventing conflicts, reconstructing peace and rebuilding societies in post-conflict zones, in reality women only have a formal role, both as part of the army and as civilians in conflict zones. International laws see women as victims, not as important actors who are equal to their male counterparts in achieving these goals.
In the second, I will analyze, through a feminist lens, international resolutions and alternative security strategies. After President George W. Once the United States of America felt it had lost its supremacy, it began a long and painful process to regain its global military and economic dominance.
Therefore, a process of imprisonment started in the U. White U. In order to achieve their purpose of toppling the governments of Afghanistan and Iraq, the Bush Administration engaged in a project that subjected Afghani and Iraqi citizens to displacement, disability, abuses, torture and even death. Militarism legitimizes masculinized men as the protectors, while feminized persons are labeled as weak, emotional and incapable ENLOE, , p. In order to build manhood in war, soldiers are taught to repress all their supposedly feminine characteristics.
The ways a father protects his family 1 and Western states attempt to protect the whole world are similar. Western states are an impersonation of the patriarchal father, which justifies their presumed warrant to ensure security SCOTT, , p.
There are 22 million refugees in the world and 25 million people who have been relocated to camps due to the destruction of their homes SHAW, , p. In war-torn countries, conflicts have destroyed agriculture and forests, water and fuel supplies, basic infrastructure and the natural environment.
Women have been the most affected, because they are the ones engaged in securing the survival of their families during and after the conflicts. The policies of the U. These policies affect inequalities both in the U. Human history has been dominated by war and this constant presence makes people believe that it has become unavoidable and even extremely necessary FRANCIS, , p. Instead of allowing for war, even as a last resort, Francis holds that citizens must value moral precepts characteristic to humanity and choose not to support war.
Portrayed in television news as the brave acts of soldiers and the women bearing their children they save or in movies based on a hegemonic masculinity which, in the end, will save the world, militarization has become an internalized value SUTTON; NOVKOV, , p.
Intentionally providing only the number of victims from one side omits the human losses of the enemy, making it seem as though their losses do not even exist. Moreover, this type of duality is specific to gendered power relations because it imposes a gender hierarchy.
These types of power relations are specific to patriarchal societies. The language of war permeates our lives and is internalized as normal and acceptable. All technical expressions used to refer to war are neutral because they hide and minimize the real consequences of war and do not express the real damage that is implied FRANCIS, , p. The educational system is another mechanism that morally justifies war. It teaches people from an early age about heroic battles and the building and rebuilding of nations, but forgets also to teach about the hard experiences of people in war, the carnage of battle and the grand scale of human destruction.
We are socialized to accept and honor a statue memorializing a national hero disabled in war on a famous boulevard, but not a statue of a disabled pregnant woman. This section of the paper outlines several theoretical approaches to security, like the traditional approach, the Critical Security Studies approach and the feminist approach.
Even if realism and its principles do not represent the main theoretical approach to international relations, all of the theories discussed in this section are based on its principles.
Thus, realist orthodoxy, with its principles concerning the international system, nation-state and maintenance of peace and security, is still persistent GOLDMAN, , p. As is evident, theories evolved from state-centered approaches to others that similarly focus on institutional mechanisms while admitting the role of actors other than the State. While traditional theories focus on state security obtained by defending state sovereignty against any kind of threat, there are some new theories, such as Critical Security Studies or Human Security, which focus on ensuring the security of the community or of the people though human emancipation or empowerment SMITH, , p.
These new theories add a moral dimension to the concept of security. Traditional theories, therefore, propose a negative definition of security concentrating on the lack of threats toward the state, while Human Security defines security positively, concentrating on the welfare and the empowerment of people STEANS, The feminist theory of international relations also criticizes the traditional perspective on security by contesting the notion of the state as an abstract entity and criticizing its advocates for intentionally omitting gender from their analysis TICKNER, , p.
In the attempt of proposing an alternative to traditional theory, Elshtain political philosopher and Laura Spelman Rockefeller Professor of Social and Political Ethics at The University of Chicago , deconstructs war discourse, highlighting its construction of stereotypes for both men and women. For Cynthia Enloe Research Professor in the International Development, Community, and Environment Department at Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts , a gender lens is an important analytical instrument, which highlights gender relations as power relations that persist in every aspect of state policy.
Therefore, the emdeded patriachy in international relations sexually objectifes women for the proper development of activities ENLOE, , p. Even though women contribute to the development of international relations, they are seen as merely victims, whether in a conflict or in the armed forces ENLOE, , p. Furthermore, she underlines the importance of a reconstructed concept that will eliminate power relations ENLOE, , p.
She has also criticised the concept of citizenship, suggesting that it is imbued with a hegemonic view of masculinity and correlated with a devalued femininity. Tickner holds that a feminist perspective that values the relational universe could contribute to the reconstruction of the concept of security. Therefore, that kind of universe is different from a dichotomous or a competitive kind.
As mentioned above, achieving security is seen as synonomous with achieving military security. States have monopolies on violence and can legitimately use it in an emergency. In this way, allied governments lost the support of their electorates. The duties that NATO assumes in order to achieve security for all its members are collective defence, crisis mangement and cooperative security NATO, NATO fulfills these duties by using all political and military means necessary.
The maintenance of an appropriate mix of nuclear and conventional forces, the maintenance of the ability to sustain concurrent major joint operations and several smaller operations for collective defense and crisis response, [sic] developing and maintain robust, mobile and deployable conventional forces. NATO, , p. Even though significant changes concerning EU defense have been made, power over military capabilities remains at the national level. Just like NATO, the European Union considers terrorism and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction to represent two of the biggest threats to global security.
However, the EU also considers organized crime, state failure and regional conflicts equally important threats to which sufficient attention should be paid to avoid an explosion of conflicts. Given the type of threats menacing global security, the European Union advocates constant action towards conflict and threat prevention. The European Union is trying to achieve the security of its citizens by developing programs that promote equal opportunities, justice and the protection of human rights.
The EES considers all sorts of threats, explaining the interdependent processes among them and offering valid solutions for confronting them.
Neither strategy makes any explicit reference to gender, but instead assumes the gender neutral approach that has long been criticized by feminists for disguising a masculine perspective HUDSON, , p. Even though none of the strategies refer directly to women, the NSC is a masculine and militarized approach to security, while the EES is less-militarized because of its citizen-centered nature, being a version that lies between a militarized perspective and a Human Security approach.
A feminist perspective on security could create a sustainable partnership with the Human Security approach, extending the basic understanding of this concept toward the inclusion of specific concerns of women HUDSON, , p.
Concerned with social cohesion, equal opportunities and gender equality, the European Union is an important partner for those fighting against gender-based violence. The UNSC resolution was the first that recognizes the active role of women in conflict prevention and the peace-building process. The UN Security Council requested that all member-states both assure a greater participation of women at all decision-making levels in peacekeeping, peace-building, conflict prevention, post-conflict reconstruction and also financially support measures to facilitate the implementation of its objectives.
In order to incorporate a gender perspective, the UNSC proposes the adoption of some measures, which should improve the status of women and girls in conflict situations. In order to accomplish this objective, the UNSC recommends that states monitor both the impact of armed conflict on women and girls and the process of building peace in a conflict or post-conflict society.
Second, this type of resolution creates an institutional environment for the debate of feminist ideas and thus for new policy-making in this area. The benefits of international organizations as actors in defining a constructive role for women in an area that traditionally emphasizes a male perspective cannot be denied.
Any limitations to the positive outcomes they bring are attributable to the purpose for the adoption of these resolutions, namely, gaining legitimacy for UN actions while not empowering women. This can be demonstrated by the way in which women are portrayed in the text of the resolutions.
They are associated with children, peace or victims and are therefore seen as vulnerable. Although the gender mainstreaming perspective is used in the text in order to gain legitimacy, the link between the feminist perspective and the content of the resolutions is missing.
This argument is bolstered by the fact that feminist critiques of UN militarism are not taken into account. As stated above, feminists have also heavily criticized the form of the resolutions. Women as well as children are presented only as victims. Diane Otto observes:. OTTO, Otto underlines the use of gender in an institutional context. The association of women with children causes them to be seen as mothers, and therefore pacifists who are vulnerable in conflict areas. This association of women with children emphasizes their vulnerabilities as mothers in the context of conflict, yet omits that these vulnerabilities originate more from an increase of gender inequality in a society in general CARPENTER, Women are not more vulnerable per se in times of war; they are made more vulnerable because of pre-existing inequalities in so called peaceful societies.
Since they are perceived as birth-givers and caretakers in societies with gendered power hierarchies, women are not considered able to have a dynamic role in peace negotiations or conflict resolutions.
These stereotypes depict men as strong, powerful and authoritative and women as weak, vulnerable and passive. These critiques of male-dominated notions of security have helped to reformulate the concept of security in a way that allows for a more holistic response to peace and security, one that is inclusive, rather than exclusive, and one that empowers those who have previously been invisible in security discourse and practice.
These types of assumptions highlight the type of essentialism that is specific to international organizations. This brings to light another major limitation of UN discourse relating to victims of armed conflict. Puechguirbal argues that at a closer look, male, not female non-combatants are more often victims of armed conflict , p. The association of women with victims is integrated into an argument that peaceful women are victims of conflict and therefore in need of protection from men who are more inclined to conflict than they.
As explained above, feminist critiques of the association of women with children, peace or victims cannot be taken separately. These associations are interconnected, mainly in order to emphasize the minimal role of women in the areas of conflict resolution and peace building.
This emphasis occurs in societies with clear gender hierarchies where dichotomies like women and peace, women and victims and women and children prevail. One of the fundamental feminist critiques to the UN resolutions is that the latter stereotypes are built upon these dichotomies and therefore reinforce hierarchical gender power relations in society, and more particularly, in conflict areas.
Another important critique of the resolutions relates to the inappropriate manner in which they have been adopted. Specifically, when it comes to including a gender perspective in the resolutions, UN officials have not taken into account all feminist suggestions.
Gender represents a social construct that defines power relations. The dynamics of power relations between genders is obscured when it is equated solely with the feminine. A feminist redefinition of security will foster a partnership between women and men such that both will benefit HUDSON, , p. One of the limitations of the resolutions is that they do not constitute ratified treaties; instead they only comprise sets of guidelines without creating mechanisms to enforce them.
Consequently, Willett observes:. Hence, one can observe this lack of consistency between the resolutions purpose and their enforcement in practice.
Gender and International Relations (eBook, PDF)
Women, conflict and violence Gender analyses of war Sexual violence Refugees International responses to gender in conflict and violence Sexual violence Post-conflict reconstruction Peace-building Refugees Organisations and websites. This important book seeks to gender the phenomenon of war, so often treated in historical and academic accounts as involving men alone. As the chapters in the book make clear, women experience war in many ways: as soldiers, civilians, care-givers, sex workers, sexual slaves, refugees and internally displaced persons, anti-war activists, community peace-builders, and more. The book makes an ideal teaching tool, as along with an excellent introductory framing chapter, each subsequent chapter ends with a list of questions for debate, and suggestions for further reading. Sex and World Peace , Valerie M. For the authors of this book, gender inequality — that is to say, the subordination of women — is a form of violence. Marshalling an impressive amount of data, they make the connection, theoretically and empirically, between micro-level gender violence, and macro-level state peacefulness, or otherwise, in global settings, demonstrating that the security of women is a vital factor in the security of the state and its incidence of conflict and war.
Until relatively recently, little had been written about gender issues in international relations despite the increased importance of the study of gender in other areas of the social sciences. Gender and International Relations fills that gap, providing a clear and accessible guide to the study of gender issues, feminist theories, and international relations. Steans illustrates how gender is central to nationalisms and political identity, the state, citizenship and conceptions of political community, security, and global political economy and development. Drawing on feminist scholarship from across the social sciences, she demonstrates the uses of feminism as critique. She also introduces readers to contemporary theoretical debates in international relations using concrete concerns and easily understandable issues to ground the discussion.
nineties, gender and international relations was considered to be on Jill. Steans looks at intersectionality of gender with global issues.
Gender and International Relations (eBook, PDF)
The third edition of Jill Steans popular and highly respected text offers a comprehensive and up to date introduction to gender in international relations today. Its nine chapters have been fully revised and expanded to cover key issues, developments and debates in the field including: the state and citizenship gender, sexuality and human rights conflict, peace and security narratives and representational practices in international politics global political economy development and gender in global governance Guiding students competently through complex theoretical and conceptual issues, the book is careful to ground its discussions in contemporary concerns, such as the War on Terror and its legacy, the securitisation of human rights, the Arab Spring, the global financial crisis, contemporary challenges to global institutions, and ethical dilemmas that arise in negotiating gender issues and politics in a culturally diverse world. Each chapter features questions for reflection, seminar activities, further reading and web links to highlight key points and provide contemporary illustrations.
Seeing Gender in International Security
An evaluation of the contribution of feminist International Relations IR theory to the discipline as a whole is fraught with complexities; not only is feminist discourse a multifaceted branch of competing theories employing separate epistemologies, it is also a somewhat marginalised field within the study of IR. In their different ways, feminist theorists aim to expose gender biases embedded in conventional IR theories, such as realism and liberal institutionalism, and to reconstruct gender-neutral outlooks of international politics. Their findings have transformative implications for key concepts in the discipline.
The author not only sensitizes the reader to differences among feminist approaches, but also clearly stakes out feminist international relations' place within the so-called Third Debate. In addition to providing a critique of the more traditional international relations concerns like the state, nation alism , and security, the text addresses questions of development and global political economy as well. Du kanske gillar.
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It is not only gender ambiguity that is securitized in the international arena, but femininity as well. A Huffington Post editorial recently suggested that the publication of images of the brutal abuse of women in Egypt and Bahrain increase the likelihood that Americans will endorse military intervention in Iran. That said, there is not just one feminist perspective on security, but many. Feminists think about security from realist, liberal, constructivist, critical, post-structural, and post-colonial perspectives among others. Those approaches offer different empirical, methodological, and normative contributions to the study of security. What they share, however, is an interest in revealing and redressing gender subordination in global politics.
She expertly synthesizes recent scholarship, bringing us up to date on 'gender and IR' while expanding discussion of emerging issues. In addition to the accessibility, coherence and comprehensive coverage we have come to expect, Steans provides new pedagogical features that will be welcomed by students and teachers alike. Spike Peterson, University of Arizona. Its clarity and its illustrative materials bring gender and IR to life. Combining major theories of international relations with multidisciplinary approaches to the study and practice of gender, this text provides students with critical tools necessary to understand and creatively assess the gendered effects of the complex forces shaping our world today. Agathangelou, York University. It covers the depth and breadth of gender-aware IR scholarship, feminist and non-feminist alike, and brings to light its important contributions to understanding political practice and to theory building.
Although international officials claim that the role of women is very important in preventing conflicts, reconstructing peace and rebuilding societies in post-conflict zones, in reality women only have a formal role, both as part of the army and as civilians in conflict zones. International laws see women as victims, not as important actors who are equal to their male counterparts in achieving these goals. In the second, I will analyze, through a feminist lens, international resolutions and alternative security strategies. After President George W. Once the United States of America felt it had lost its supremacy, it began a long and painful process to regain its global military and economic dominance. Therefore, a process of imprisonment started in the U.
Я не надеялся что-либо найти, но наткнулся на учетную запись абонента. - Он выдержал паузу. - Я, конечно, предположил, что это не та Северная Дакота, которую мы ищем, но на всякий случай проверил эту запись. Представь себе мое изумление, когда я обнаружил множество сообщений Энсея Танкадо.
Но это значит… значит… что мы не можем… - Это значит, что нужен другой план действий. - Фонтейн, как обычно, говорил спокойно и деловито. Глаза Джаббы по-прежнему выражали шок и растерянность, когда сзади раздался душераздирающий крик: - Джабба.
Вина ляжет на АНБ. - Мы успеем найти его партнера. - Думаю. У нас есть кое-какие данные.
Каждый новый шифр после его вскрытия переводится на безопасное хранение из шифровалки в главную базу данных АНБ по оптико-волоконному кабелю длиной 450 ярдов.
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Сьюзан упала на спину, юбка ее задралась. Верхняя пуговица блузки расстегнулась, и в синеватом свете экрана было видно, как тяжело вздымается ее грудь. Она в ужасе смотрела, как он придавливает ее к полу, стараясь разобрать выражение его глаз. Похоже, в них угадывался страх.
Вот. Все прочитали: - Разница в весе незначительна… разделяются вследствие газовой диффузии… 10,032498X10134 в сравнении с 1939484X1023. - Ну вот, наконец-то! - вскрикнул Джабба. - Это и есть их вес.
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