File Name: male hormones and their functions .zip
Sex hormones are responsible for driving sexual development puberty.
Hormonal male contraception clinical trials began in the s. The method is based on the use of exogenous testosterone alone or in combination with a progestin to suppress the endogenous production of testosterone and spermatogenesis. Studies using testosterone alone showed that the method was very effective with few adverse effects. Addition of a progestin increases the rate and extent of suppression of spermatogenesis. Common adverse effects include acne, injection site pain, mood change including depression, and changes in libido that are usually mild and rarely lead to discontinuation.
You and Your Hormones
The onset of puberty is controlled by two major hormones: FSH initiates spermatogenesis and LH signals the release of testosterone. Puberty is a period of several years in which rapid physical growth and psychological changes occur, culminating in sexual maturity. The average onset of puberty is age 11 or 12 for boys.
These changes are largely influenced by hormonal activity. Hormones play an organizational role, priming the body to behave in a certain way once puberty begins, and an activational role, referring to changes in hormones during adolescence that trigger behavioral and physical changes. Hormonal regulation of the male reproductive system : GnRH stimulates the production of FSH and LH, which act on the testes to begin spermatogenesis and to develop secondary sex characteristics in the male.
At the onset of puberty, the hypothalamus begins secreting high pulses of GnRH, or gonadotropin-releasing hormone. In response, the pituitary gland releases follicle stimulating hormone FSH and luteinizing hormone LH into the male system for the first time. FSH enters the testes, stimulating the Sertoli cells, which help to nourish the sperm cells that the testes produce, to begin facilitating spermatogenesis.
LH also enters the testes, stimulating the interstitial cells, called Leydig cells, to make and release testosterone into the testes and the blood. Testosterone, the hormone responsible for the secondary sexual characteristics that develop in the male during adolescence, stimulates spermatogenesis, or the process of sperm production in the testes. Secondary sex characteristics include a deepening of the voice, the growth of facial, axillary, and pubic hair, and the beginnings of the sex drive.
A negative feedback system occurs in the male with rising levels of testosterone acting on the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary to inhibit the release of GnRH, FSH, and LH. The Sertoli cells produce the hormone inhibin, which is released into the blood when the sperm count is too high. The stages of the ovarian cycle in the female are regulated by hormones secreted by the hypothalamus, pituitary, and the ovaries. The control of reproduction in females is more complex than that of the male.
As with the male, the hypothalamic hormone GnRH gonadotropin-releasing hormone causes the release of the hormones FSH follicle stimulating hormone and LH luteinizing hormone from the anterior pituitary.
In addition, estrogens and progesterone are released from the developing follicles, which are structures on the ovaries that contain the maturing eggs. In females, FSH stimulates the development of egg cells, called ova, which develop in structures called follicles. Follicle cells produce the hormone inhibin, which inhibits FSH production. LH also plays a role in the development of ova, as well as in the induction of ovulation and stimulation of estradiol and progesterone production by the ovaries.
Estradiol and progesterone are steroid hormones that prepare the body for pregnancy. Estradiol is the reproductive hormone in females that assists in endometrial regrowth, ovulation, and calcium absorption; it is also responsible for the secondary sexual characteristics of females. These include breast development, flaring of the hips, and a shorter period necessary for bone maturation.
Hormonal control of the female reproductive cycle : The ovarian and menstrual cycles of female reproduction are regulated by hormones produced by the hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovaries. The pattern of activation and inhibition of these hormones varies between phases of the reproductive cycle. The ovarian cycle governs the preparation of endocrine tissues and release of eggs, while the menstrual cycle governs the preparation and maintenance of the uterine lining. These cycles occur concurrently and are coordinated over a 22—32 day cycle, with an average length of 28 days.
The first half of the ovarian cycle is the follicular phase. Slowly-rising levels of FSH and LH cause the growth of follicles on the surface of the ovary, which prepares the egg for ovulation.
As the follicles grow, they begin releasing estrogens and a low level of progesterone. Progesterone maintains the endometrium, the lining of the uterus, to help ensure pregnancy. Just prior to the middle of the cycle approximately day 14 , the high level of estrogen causes FSH and, especially, LH to rise rapidly and then fall. The spike in LH causes ovulation: the most mature follicle ruptures and releases its egg. The follicles that did not rupture degenerate and their eggs are lost.
The level of estrogen decreases when the extra follicles degenerate. Follicle : This mature egg follicle may rupture and release an egg in response to a surge of LH.
If pregnancy implantation does not occur, the lining of the uterus is sloughed off, a process known as menstruation. After about five days, estrogen levels rise and the menstrual cycle enters the proliferative phase. The endometrium begins to regrow, replacing the blood vessels and glands that deteriorated during the end of the last cycle.
Following ovulation, the ovarian cycle enters its luteal phase and the menstrual cycle enters its secretory phase, both of which run from about day 15 to The luteal and secretory phases refer to changes in the ruptured follicle.
The cells in the follicle undergo physical changes, producing a structure called a corpus luteum, which produces estrogen and progesterone. The progesterone facilitates the regrowth of the uterine lining and inhibits the release of further FSH and LH. The uterus is again being prepared to accept a fertilized egg, should it occur during this cycle.
The level of estrogen produced by the corpus luteum increases to a steady level for the next few days. If no fertilized egg is implanted into the uterus, the corpus luteum degenerates and the levels of estrogen and progesterone decrease. The endometrium begins to degenerate as the progesterone levels drop, initiating the next menstrual cycle. Stages of the menstrual cycle : Rising and falling hormone levels result in progression of the ovarian and menstrual cycles. As women approach their mids to mids, their ovaries begin to lose their sensitivity to FSH and LH.
Menstrual periods become less frequent and finally cease; this process is known as menopause. There are still eggs and potential follicles on the ovaries, but without the stimulation of FSH and LH, they will not produce a viable egg to be released. The outcome of this is the inability to have children. Various symptoms are associated with menopause, including hot flashes, heavy sweating, headaches, some hair loss, muscle pain, vaginal dryness, insomnia, depression, weight gain, and mood swings.
Estrogen is involved in calcium metabolism and, without it, blood levels of calcium decrease. To replenish the blood, calcium is lost from bone, which may decrease the bone density and lead to osteoporosis.
Supplementation of estrogen in the form of hormone replacement therapy HRT can prevent bone loss, but the therapy can have negative side effects, such as an increased risk of stroke or heart attack, blood clots, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer, gall bladder disease, and, possibly, dementia.
LH triggers the production of testosterone from the Leydig cells of the testis; testosterone causes the development of secondary sex characteristics in the male.
As spermatogenesis and testosterone production increase, the Sertoli cells produce inhibin, which, together with rising levels of testosterone, inhibit the release of FSH and LH from the pituitary gland.
Female Hormones The stages of the ovarian cycle in the female are regulated by hormones secreted by the hypothalamus, pituitary, and the ovaries. Learning Objectives Explain the function of female hormones in reproduction.
FSH stimulates the growth and maturation of follicles on the ovaries, which house and nourish the developing eggs; the follicle, in turn, releases inhibin, which inhibits the production of FSH.
Progesterone stimulates the growth of the endometrial lining of the uterus in order to prepare it for pregnancy; a strong surge of LH at around day 14 of the cycle triggers ovulation of an egg from the most mature follicle.
After ovulation, the ruptured follicle becomes a corpus luteum, which secretes progesterone to either regrow the uterine lining or to support the pregnancy if it occurs. Licenses and Attributions. CC licensed content, Shared previously.
Testosterone is the primary sex hormone and anabolic steroid in males. Testosterone is a steroid from the androstane class containing a keto and hydroxyl groups at positions three and seventeen respectively. It is biosynthesized in several steps from cholesterol and is converted in the liver to inactive metabolites. On average, in adult males, levels of testosterone are about seven to eight times as great as in adult females. In addition to its role as a natural hormone, testosterone is used as a medication in the treatment of hypogonadism in men and breast cancer in women. It is also used as part of transgender hormone therapy for transgender men [ citation needed ] and illicitly to enhance physique and performance , for instance in athletes. In general, androgens such as testosterone promote protein synthesis and thus growth of tissues with androgen receptors.
The following is a list of hormones found in Homo sapiens. Spelling is not uniform for many hormones. In male: spermatogenesis , enhances production of androgen-binding protein by the Sertoli cells of the testes. Inhibit immune response, towards the human embryo. Release Insulin-like growth factor 1 from liver.
The onset of puberty is controlled by two major hormones: FSH initiates spermatogenesis and LH signals the release of testosterone. Puberty is a period of several years in which rapid physical growth and psychological changes occur, culminating in sexual maturity. The average onset of puberty is age 11 or 12 for boys. These changes are largely influenced by hormonal activity. Hormones play an organizational role, priming the body to behave in a certain way once puberty begins, and an activational role, referring to changes in hormones during adolescence that trigger behavioral and physical changes.
Endocrine glands and their hormones
Daryl B. O'Connor, David M. Casanueva, Joseph D. Finn, Aleksander Giwercman, Thang S. Han, Ilpo T.
The male reproductive system is regulated by the production, stimulation, and feedback of specific hormones. Hormonal control of spermatogenesis varies among species. In humans, the mechanisms are not completely understood.
You and Your Hormones
Этот фонд был для Стратмора постоянной головной болью. - Не вижу ничего нового, - сказала Сьюзан. - В чем же чрезвычайность ситуации, из-за которой вы вытащили меня из ванной.
- А тебе здесь делать нечего. Беккер повернулся, печально посмотрев в последний раз на ее руку. Ты ничего не можешь с этим поделать, Дэвид. Не лезь не в свое. - Ну. Беккер кивнул. Уже в дверях он грустно улыбнулся: - Вы все же поосторожнее.
Although FSH and LH are named after their functions in female reproduction, they Other hormones have specific functions in the male and female reproductive.
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Но, ожив, монитор вновь показал то же. Чатрукьяну вдруг стало холодно. У сотрудников лаборатории систем безопасности была единственная обязанность - поддерживать ТРАНСТЕКСТ в чистоте, следить, чтобы в него не проникли вирусы.
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Внешняя окружность была затуманена и казалась почти прозрачной. - У нас имеется пять уровней защиты, - объяснял Джабба. - Главный бастион, два набора пакетных фильтров для Протокола передачи файлов, Х-одиннадцать, туннельный блок и, наконец, окно авторизации справа от проекта Трюфель. Внешний щит, исчезающий на наших глазах, - открытый главный компьютер. Этот щит практически взломан.
Как вы можете убедиться, этого не произошло.
Что у них с волосами? - превозмогая боль, спросил он, показывая рукой на остальных пассажиров. - Они все… - Красно-бело-синие? - подсказал парень. Беккер кивнул, стараясь не смотреть на серебряную дужку в верхней губе парня.
Это открытие было болезненным, однако правда есть правда. Стратмор скачал файл с Цифровой крепостью и запустил его в ТРАНСТЕКСТ, но программа Сквозь строй отказалась его допустить, потому что файл содержал опасную линейную мутацию.