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- 3C seismic data processing and interpretation: a case study from Carpathian Foredeep basin
- Attributes References
- Application of integrated seismic data processing and interpretation to subtle reservoir survey
- Seismic Processing
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3C seismic data processing and interpretation: a case study from Carpathian Foredeep basin
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Conventional processing of reflection seismic data yields an earth image represented by a seismic section which usually is displayed in time. Figure I-1 shows a seismic section from the Gulf of Mexico, nearly 40 km in length. Approximate depth scale indicates a sedimentary section of interbedded sands and shales down to 8 km. Note from this earth image a salt sill embedded in the sedimentary sequence. This allocthonous salt sill has a rugose top and a relatively smooth base. Note the folding and faulting of the sedimentary section above the salt.
The reflection seismic method has been used to delineate near-surface geology for the purpose of coal and mineral exploration and engineering studies, especially in recent years with increasing acceptance. Figure I-2a shows a seismic section along a m traverse across a bedrock valley with steep flanks.
The lithologic column based on borehole data indicates a sedimentary sequence of clay, sand, and gravel deposited within the valley. The bedrock is approximately 15 m below the surface at the fringes of the valley and 65 m below the surface at the bottom of the valley. The strong reflection at the sediment-bedrock boundary is a result of the contrast between the low-velocity sediments above and the high-velocity Precambrian quartz pegmatite below.
The reflection seismic method also has been used to delineate the crustal structure down to the Moho discontinuity and below. Figure I-2b shows a seismic section recorded on land along a km traverse. Based on regional control, it is known that the section consists of sediments down to about 4 km. The reflection event at 6. The group of reflections between 8—10 s, which corresponds to a depth range of 25—35 km, represents a transition zone in the lower crust — most likely, the Moho discontinuity, itself.
Common-midpoint CMP recording is the most widely used seismic data acquisition technique. By providing redundancy, measured as the fold of coverage in the seismic experiment, it improves signal quality. Figure I-3 shows seismic data collected along the same traverse in with single-fold coverage and in with twelve-fold coverage.
These two different vintages of data have been subjected to different treatments in processing; nevertheless, the fold of coverage has caused the most difference in the signal level of the final sections. Seismic data processing strategies and results are strongly affected by field acquisition parameters. Additionally, surface conditions have a significant impact on the quality of data collected in the field. Part of the seismic section shown in Figure I-4 between midpoints A and B is over an area covered with karstic limestone.
Note the continuous reflections between 2 and 3 s outside the limestone-covered zone. These reflections abruptly disappear under the problem zone in the middle. The lack of events is not the result of a subsurface void of reflectors.
Surface conditions also have an influence on how much energy from a given source type can penetrate into the subsurface. Figure I-5 shows a seismic section along a traverse over a karstic topography with a highly weathered near-surface. In data acquisition, surface charges have been used to the right of midpoint A, and charges have been placed in holes to the left of midpoint A.
In the absence of source coupling using surface charges, there is very little energy that can penetrate into the subsurface through the weathered near-surface layer. As a result, note the lack of coherent reflections to the right of midpoint A. On the other hand, improved source coupling using downhole charges has resulted in better penetration of the energy into the subsurface in the remainder of the section.
Besides surface conditions, environmental and demographic restrictions can have a significant impact on field data quality. The part of the seismic section shown in Figure I-6 between midpoints A and B is through a village. In the village, the vibroseis source was not operated with full power.
Hence, not enough energy penetrated into the earth. Although surface conditions were similar along the entire line, the risk of property damage resulted in poor signal quality in the middle portion of the line. Other factors, such as weather conditions, care taken during recording, and the condition of the recording equipment, also influence data quality. Almost always, seismic data are collected often in less-than-ideal conditions. Hence, we can only hope to attenuate the noise and enhance the signal in processing to the extent allowed by the quality of the data acquisition.
In addition to field acquisition parameters, seismic data processing results also depend on the techniques used in processing. A conventional processing sequence almost always includes the three principal processes — deconvolution , CMP stacking , and migration. Sheriff, David C. Change Password. Old Password. New Password. Password Changed Successfully Your password has been changed.
Create a new account Email. Returning user. Can't sign in? Forgot your password? Enter your email address below and we will send you the reset instructions. Request Username Can't sign in? Forgot your username? Enter your email address below and we will send you your username. Buy print edition Recommend to a librarian. Purchase Save for later Item saved, go to cart. In addition to the developments in all aspects of conventional processing, this two-volume set represents a comprehensive and complete coverage of the modern trends in the seismic industry-from time to depth, from 3-D to 4-D, from 4-D to 4-C, and from isotropy to anisotropy.
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Derivatives of this work must carry the same license. O how sweet it is — Listening to the echos from the earth. The seismic method has three principal applications: a Delineation of near-surface geology for engineering studies, and coal and mineral exploration within a depth of up to 1 km: The seismic method applied to the near-surface studies is known as engineering seismology. Front Matter. Preview Abstract The front matter contains the title page, copyright page, dedication, table of contents, preface to the first edition, and the preface.
The seismic method has three Fundamentals of Signal Processing. Preview Abstract 1. It applies to almost all stages of processing. A seismic trace represents a seismic wavefield recorded at a receiver location. The digital form of a seismic trace is a time Preview Abstract 2. The process normally Velocity Analysis and Statics Corrections. Preview Abstract 3. Seismic data, on the other hand, provide an indirect measurement of velocity.
Based on these two types of Preview Abstract 4. Figure 4. Dip-Moveout Correction and Prestack Migration. Preview Abstract 5. As a result, DMO correction yields an improved stacked section that is a Noise and Multiple Attenuation. Preview Abstract 6. Noise generally is classified into two categories — random noise and coherent noise. The random noise category includes noise in the Preview Abstract 7. Examples include salt diapirs, overthrust and folded belts, major unconformities, reefs, and deltaic sands.
A two-dimensional 2-D Earth Imaging in Depth. Preview Abstract 8. Examples of complex overburden include diapiric structures formed by salt tectonics, imbricate structures formed by Earth Modeling in Depth.
Based on the concept of relative spatial resolution in seismic exploration, the processing procedure that both enhances the vertical resolution and relatively preserves the information of the reservoir as well as the techniques for attenuating the near-surface effects are critical to get a high-precision seismic imaging result. More importantly, a scientific and efficient QC flow is a guarantee of success. This paper proposes a geophysical and geological monitoring method for QC of the whole processing flow. A case study and discussion are also presented. The result demonstrates that relative spatial reservoir information can be preserved in the final result with the help of strict monitoring and controlling procedure. Vertical resolution of seismic data can hardly meet the requirment of geological interpretation due to the near surface variation, earth absorption, and high-frequency noise. We put forward an idea of relative spatial resolution in seismic exploration based on the geological concepts Ling et al,
When processing seismic data, the complexities of the particular geological model require specialist expertise. With our depth of geological and geophysical knowledge, we can provide you with dedicated seismic processing for exploration, development and production studies. As a leading provider of integrated subsurface studies, we offer you unrivaled experience and expertise. We have successfully participated in numerous projects around the globe — from exploration studies, reserve certifications, asset evaluations and data room reviews to redeterminations and integrated field development planning. Seismic processing from SGS — fast, effective integrated processing for your seismic data. Read more. Why choose seismic processing from SGS?
Robert E. Sheriff; Processing and interpretation of seismic reflection data; an historical precis. The Leading Edge ;; 7 1 : 40— Shibboleth Sign In. OpenAthens Sign In. Institutional Sign In. Sign In or Create an Account.
Application of integrated seismic data processing and interpretation to subtle reservoir survey
Daniel Silverman; The digital processing of seismic data. Geophysics ;; 32 6 : — The paper discusses the background of the problem of signal and noise in the seismic process, and the application of the principles of communication theory to this problem. The limitations of the seismic process are discussed along with the types of noises involved, the methods of rejecting noise, the use of filters to reduce noise, characteristics of filters, and the relationships between frequency domain, time domain, mathematical, and digital filters. In the discussion of the electronic data processing of seismic information, the characteristics of an ideal seismic digital computer system are developed in relation to the characteristics of seismic data.
Multicomponent seismic plays a significant role in supporting reservoir analysis related to accumulations of crude oil and natural gas. The purpose of the research was the optimal processing workflow design, which integrated seismic images of three-component 2D seismic line 2D—3C seismic. A complete processing flow for vertical and both horizontal components was conducted to obtain stacks and prestack gathers with preserved amplitude relations RAP processing. The main issue of the research was the interpretation of S-wave velocity, which was not provided by well log data. The research provided valuable information regarding amplitude anomalies and helped in the verification of the potential gas accumulations. Several reservoir analysis tools were tested, including seismic attributes and AVO analysis. Conducted research confirmed the existence of reservoir which is characterized by good reservoir parameters.
Nowadays, it becomes very urgent to find remain oil under the oil shortage worldwide. However, most of simple reservoirs have been discovered and those undiscovered are mostly complex structural, stratigraphic and lithologic ones. Information feedbacks occurred between the pre-stack and post-stack processes so as to improve the accuracy in utilization of data and avoid pitfalls in seismic attributes. Through the integration of seismic data with geologic data, parameters that were most essential to describing hydrocarbon characteristics were determined and comprehensively appraised, and regularities of reservoir generation and distribution were described so as to accurately appraise reservoirs, delineate favorite traps and pinpoint wells.
PDF | Chałupki Dębniańskie seismic profile 2D–3C is located in Carpathian Foredeep basin, Poland, and is an object of interest for geologists and | Find, read.