File Name: an introduction to political geography space place and politics .zip
Site Search and Site Map.
ISBN 13: 9780415250771
Site Search and Site Map. Geographic Aspects. Types of Governments. Political Conflict. Humans have been organizing and structuring themselves from the beginning. Geographers are interested in such structuring because it is an expression of the human organization of space and is closely related to other spatial evidences of culture, such as religion, language and ethnicity.
Political Geography is the study of the organization and distribution of political phenomena, including their impact on other spatial components of society and culture. The primary concerns of the sub-discipline can be summarized as the inter-relationships between people, state and territory.
Political geography has extended the scope of traditional political science approaches by acknowledging that the exercise of power is not restricted to states and bureaucracies, but is part of everyday life.
This has resulted in the concerns of political geography increasingly overlapping with those of other human geography sub-disciplines such as economic geography, and, particularly, with those of social and cultural geography in relation to the study of the politics of place. Modern political geography often considers:.
For now we will define state on the international level as an independent political unit occupying a defined, permanently populated territory and having full sovereign control over its internal and foreign affairs. In contrast a nation is a cultural concept defining a group of people with a common culture occupying a particular territory, bound together by a strong sense of unity arising from shared beliefs and customs.
The composite term nation-state properly refers to a state whose territorial extent coincides with that occupied by a distinct nation or people. A multi-nation state or multinational state is one that contains more than one nation … the opposite of a nation-state. A part-nation state occurs when a nation is dispersed across and is predominant in two or more states. Arab Nation. A stateless nation is a people without state … The world is populated by more than 1, stateless nations, most of which are in one way or another engaged in national movements.
The classic instance of a stateless nation has been the Jewish people who for long centuries suffered for lack of a homeland until Other examples include. About 10 million are in Turkey, 4 million in Iraq, 5 million in Iran and a million in Syria. There may be another million in the former Soviet Union. About , of the 1. The earliest forms of the state emerged once it became possible to centralize power in a durable way.
Agriculture and writing are almost everywhere associated with this process. Agriculture allowed for the production and storing of a surplus, which in turn allowed and encouraged the emergence of a class of people who controlled and protected the agricultural stores and thus did not have to spend most of their time providing for their own subsistence. Writing made possible the centralization of vital information.
The story of the development of the specifically modern state begins with the dissolution of the western Roman Empire. This led to the fragmentation of the imperial state into the hands of private and decentralized lords whose political, judicial and military roles corresponded to the organization of economic production. In place of the fragmented system of feudal rule, with its often indistinct territorial claims, large unitary states with extensive control over definite territories emerged.
This process gave rise to the highly centralized and increasingly bureaucratic forms of absolute monarchical rule of the 17th and 18th centuries, when the principal features of the contemporary state system took form, including the introduction of a standing army, a central taxation system, diplomatic relations with permanent embassies, and the development of state economic policy — mercantilism.
The Peace of Westphalia resulted from the first modern diplomatic congress and initiated a new order in central Europe based on the concept of state sovereignty. Sovereignty is the exclusive right to control a government, a country and a people. The now universal idea of the modern state was developed by European political philosophers in the 18 th century which advanced the concept that people owe their allegiance to a state and the people it represents rather than its leader or king.
This idea of state was passed on to much of Africa, Asia and the Americas during the European expansion in the 17 th , 18 th and 19 th centuries. Indigenous people had their own organized used of space, but the borders were drawn for the convenience of the Europeans who ignored the existing cultures and political structure. As many of these former colonies have gained political independence, they have maintained the idea of state and the borders established by the Europeans.
The idea of separate statehood grew slowly at first. In there were 35 countries in the world. By there were 70 countries. After World War II, the end of the colonial era brought a rapid increase in the number of sovereign states. At present there are over sovereign states. Political Resources on the Net.
Size, shape and location have great effect on the power and stability of states. Keep in mind that some states are bigger than others but resources are not evenly distributed. In general, the larger the state, the better the chance that there will be enough resources to support the state, but Canada, Russia and Australia are large states with relatively small areas capable of supporting agriculture.
Like size, shape can affect the well-being of a state by fostering or hindering effective organization. Compact states: states that are roughly circular in shape … the distance from the center to any point on the boundary exhibits little variation … Cambodia, Poland, Zimbabwe and Uruguay are examples.
Prorupt states: nearly compact but possess one or sometimes two narrow extensions of territory. Proruption may simply reflect peninsular elongations of land area, such as with Thailand.
In other instances, the extensions have an economic or strategic significance - securing access to resources or water routes. Namibia strip was designed by the Germans to give access to the Zambezi River. Elongated states: a state whose territory is decidedly long and narrow; its length is at least six times greater than its average width.
Parts of the country far from the capital are likely to be isolated. These countries are likely to encompass more diversity of climate, resources and people. Fragmented states: countries composed entirely of islands Philippines, Indonesia , countries partly on islands and partly on mainland Italy and Malaysia and countries that are chiefly on the mainland, but whose territory is separated by another state US.
Pakistan was once a fragmented country until when the eastern part broke away and became Bangladesh. Perforated states: state whose territory completely surrounds the territory of another state so that it has a hole in it. The whole world, even Antarctica, is divided up and claimed by countries. Natural boundaries: those based on recognizable physical features, such as mountains, rivers or lakes. Even though these natural boundaries seem like a good idea, in practice there are problems.
Artificial boundaries: alternative to natural boundaries … geometric boundaries. Antecedent boundary: one drawn before an area is well populated and prior to the cultural landscape features, such as the 49 th parallel separating the US and Canada.
Subsequent boundaries: boundaries drawn after the development of the cultural landscape … There are two types of subsequent boundaries. Consequent boundary: which is a border drawn to accommodate existing cultural differences … Northern Ireland and Ireland.
Superimposed boundary: a boundary imposed on an area by a conquering or colonizing power that is unconcerned about pre-existing cultural patterns … Africa, Yugoslavia, Afghanistan. Relict boundary: a former boundary line that once had meaning but no longer functions as such, usually marked by landscape features forts, castles. The abandoned castles dotting the frontier zone between Wales and England constitute a relict boundary. Boundary disputes are constant sources of problems in the world.
Since World War II almost one-half of the countries in the world have been involved in some kind of boundary dispute. There are four general types of boundary disputes. Positional disputes occur when states disagree about the interpretation of documents that define a boundary. The boundary between Argentina and Chile was to follow the highest peaks and the watersheds between the east and west flowing rivers.
These two things do not always coincide. Territorial disputes arise when a superimposed boundary divides an ethnically homogeneous population. Conflicts can arise when one of the states wants to annex part of another state to reunite a group of people. Hitler used this as an excuse to invade Czechoslovakia and Poland to reunite pockets of German minorities residing in these states.
Somalia has had border clashes with Ethiopia over Somalis living in that country. Kashmir, a disputed area between India and Pakistan have caused two wars so far. Resource disputes arise when neighboring states want access to resources from another state. The Gulf War was also related to this.
Iraq helped justify its invasion of Kuwait because of a large oil reserve that mostly lies in Iraq that Kuwait pumps oil from. Functional disputes arise when neighboring states disagree over policies applied over a boundary.
US-Mexican border disputes over drugs and immigration. Classification of governments can be based on several different variables.
Economy : Who provides the goods and services that are bought, sold and used? In a capitalist or free-market economy, people own their own businesses and property and must buy services for private use, such as healthcare. Socialist governments own many of the larger industries and provide education, health and welfare services while allowing citizens some economic choices. In a communist country, the government owns all businesses and farms and provides its people's healthcare, education and welfare.
Politics : How is the government run? Rule by a single unelected leader who may use force to keep control. In a military dictatorship, the army is in control. Usually, there is little or no attention to public opinion or individual rights. Rule by a single political party. People forced to do what government tells them and may be prevented from leaving the country. A form of government where rulers claim to be ruling on behalf of a set of religious ideas or as direct agents of a deity.
A monarchy has a king or queen who sometimes has absolute power. Power is passed through the family. A parliamentary government is led by representatives of the people.
The system can't perform the operation now. Try again later. Citations per year. Duplicate citations. The following articles are merged in Scholar. Their combined citations are counted only for the first article. Merged citations.
Political geography is concerned with the study of both the spatially uneven outcomes of political processes and the ways in which political processes are themselves affected by spatial structures. Conventionally, for the purposes of analysis, political geography adopts a three-scale structure with the study of the state at the centre, the study of international relations or geopolitics above it, and the study of localities below it. The primary concerns of the subdiscipline can be summarized as the inter-relationships between people, state, and territory. The origins of political geography lie in the origins of human geography itself, and the early practitioners were concerned mainly with the military and political consequences of the relationships between physical geography, state territories, and state power. In particular there was a close association with both regional geography , with its focus on the unique characteristics of regions, and environmental determinism , with its emphasis on the influence of the physical environment on human activities.
An Introduction to Space and Place
Learning Guides - A. Read reviews from worlds largest community for readers. Entirely revised and updated, this reviews the hist The text explores the full breadth of contemporary political geography, covering not only traditional concerns such as the state, geopolitics, electoral geography and nationalism but also increasing important areas at the cutting-edge of political geography research including globalization, the geographies of regulation and governance, geographies of policy formulation and delivery, and. Political geography - Wikipedia An Introduction to Political Geography continues to provide a broad-based introduction to contemporary political geography for students following undergraduate degree courses in geography and related subjects. The text explores the full breadth of contemporary political geography, covering not only traditional concerns such as the state An Introduction to Political Geography continues to provide a broad-based introduction to contemporary political geography for students following undergraduate degree courses in geography and related subjects.
Mark B. Sarah A. Fennia-International Journal of Geography 1 , ,
Geographical spatial understandings of social movement practice are crucial to the interpretation of contentious action. Movements act from space, politically mobilizing from the material conditions of their local spaces; movements act on space appropriating it with a group identity; movements act in space, such as taking to the streets for protests, or occupying land; and movements make space: creating conditions to expand public political involvement, for example through the creation of solidaristic alliances. This chapter analyzes such geographies of social movements, highlighting the role played in contentious action by the politics of place and scale, spatial inequalities, relational and networked space, and by social movement assemblages.
Jones, M. Routledge: London. ISBN
Это был опытный образец нового компьютера Монокль, разработанного ВМС США для проверки напряжения аккумуляторов в труднодоступных отделениях подводных лодок - миниатюрный аппарат, совмещенный с сотовым модемом, последнее достижение микротехнологии. Его визуальный монитор - дисплей на жидких кристаллах - был вмонтирован в левую линзу очков. Монокль явился провозвестником новой эры персональных компьютеров: благодаря ему пользователь имел возможность просматривать поступающую информацию и одновременно контактировать с окружающим миром. Кардинальное отличие Монокля заключалось не в его миниатюрном дисплее, а в системе ввода информации. Пользователь вводил информацию с помощью крошечных контактов, закрепленных на пальцах.
Черт возьми, - подумал Бринкерхофф, разглядывая ее серое кашемировое платье, - или я старею, или она молодеет. - Еженедельные отчеты. - Мидж улыбнулась, помахивая пачкой документов. - Вам нужно проверить, как это выглядит. Бринкерхофф окинул взглядом ее фигуру.
- Ты думаешь, что в ТРАНСТЕКСТ проник вирус. Мидж вздохнула: - А что еще это может. - Это может быть не вашим делом! - раздался зычный голос у них за спиной. Мидж от неожиданности стукнулась головой о стекло.
Фильтры служили куда более высокой цели - защите главной базы данных АНБ. Чатрукьяну была известна история ее создания. Несмотря на все предпринятые в конце 1970-х годов усилия министерства обороны сохранить Интернет для себя, этот инструмент оказался настолько соблазнительным, что не мог не привлечь к себе внимания всего общества.
Если вы назовете мне его имя, я сделаю все, чтобы он получил свой паспорт немедленно. - Да что вы… Мне кажется, что… - Зашелестели перелистываемые страницы. - Имя немецкое.
Чатрукьян замер от неожиданности. - Но, сэр, мутация… - Немедленно! - крикнул Стратмор. Чатрукьян некоторое время смотрел на него, лишившись дара речи, а потом бегом направился прочь из шифровалки. Стратмор повернулся и с удивлением увидел Хейла.
Двери оказались прямо перед ним, словно приглашая его принять участие в празднестве, до которого ему не было никакого дела. Внезапно он понял, что входит в собор. ГЛАВА 90 В шифровалке завывали сирены. Стратмор не имел представления о том, сколько времени прошло после ухода Сьюзан.
Он почувствовал жжение в боку, дотронулся до больного места и посмотрел на руку. Между пальцами и на кольце Танкадо была кровь. У него закружилась голова. Увидев выгравированные знаки, Беккер страшно удивился. Он совсем забыл про кольцо на пальце, забыл, для чего приехал в Севилью.
Мы не шпионим за простыми гражданами, и ты это отлично знаешь. ФБР имеет возможность прослушивать телефонные разговоры, но это вовсе не значит, что оно прослушивает. - Будь у них штат побольше, прослушивали .
Он смотрел на приближающиеся огни центра города и молил Бога, чтобы он дал ему добраться туда живым. Беккер проехал уже половину пути, когда услышал сзади металлический скрежет, прижался к рулю и до отказа открыл дроссель. Раздался приглушенный звук выстрела. Мимо.
Однако тот не подавал никаких признаков жизни. Сьюзан перевела взгляд на помост перед кабинетом Стратмора и ведущую к нему лестницу. - Коммандер.