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- The effects of racial profiling
- A Public Health Perspective of Road Traffic Accidents
- Lasso: Linkage Analysis of Serious Sexual Offences
- A Public Health Perspective of Road Traffic Accidents
Jump to navigation Skip navigation. On a hot summer afternoon in August , year-old U. Gerald and his young son Gregory drove across the Oklahoma border into a nightmare.
The recent spate of police killings in Ferguson, Missouri and other cities in the USA have once again highlighted police violence and racial profiling. The shooting of Michael Brown in August , and subsequent protests, speak to the longstanding and widespread abuse of police powers. The Department of Justice's investigation into the Ferguson Police Department found that African-American drivers are more likely to be stopped, more likely to be searched, more likely to be cited and arrested and more likely to received multiple citations during single incidents United States Department of Justice Civil Rights Division ,
The effects of racial profiling
Road traffic accidents RTAs have emerged as an important public health issue which needs to be tackled by a multi-disciplinary approach. The trend in RTA injuries and death is becoming alarming in countries like India. The number of fatal and disabling road accident happening is increasing day by day and is a real public health challenge for all the concerned agencies to prevent it.
The approach to implement the rules and regulations available to prevent road accidents is often ineffective and half-hearted. Awareness creation, strict implementation of traffic rules, and scientific engineering measures are the need of the hour to prevent this public health catastrophe. This article is intended to create awareness among the health professionals about the various modalities available to prevent road accidents and also to inculcate a sense of responsibility toward spreading the message of road safety as a good citizen of our country.
Motorization has enhanced the lives of many individuals and societies, but the benefits have come with a price. Although the number of lives lost in road accidents in high-income countries indicate a downward trend in recent decades, for most of the world's population, the burden of road-traffic injury—in terms of societal and economic costs—is rising substantially.
As a developing country, India is no exception. Not a day passes without RTA happening in the roads in India in which countless number of people are killed or disabled. Often members of the whole family are wiped out. Those who are affected or killed are mostly people in their prime productive age. The highest burden of injuries and fatalities is borne disproportionately by poor people, as they are mostly pedestrians, cyclists, and passengers of buses and minibuses.
The data for fatal accidents presented to the Parliament by the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways for year shows that , people perished in mishaps that year and the national and state highways accounted for nearly half of all road accidents. More than 1. China has managed to reduce the number of road deaths from over , to 90, or so, and in India the situation has worsened.
In India the situation is exacerbated by poor enforcement of traffic laws and myopic policies on the part of our policy makers.
In the United States, which has close to million people and more than million vehicles, the number of deaths per 10, vehicles is 1. In comparison, China has a road fatality rate of about 5 with almost twice as many vehicles. Besides, in China, the fatality rate has seen a downward trend, while in India it is raising.
In , in Tamil Nadu, 12, persons died on the roads out of 59, accidents. During the same period, people were killed in the Chennai city roads out of accidents. During over 12, people lost their lives in the State, while in Chennai city alone people died.
During , Tamil Nadu has reported maximum number 64, of road accidents accounting for During , a total of 13, persons were killed out of 55, accidents [ Table 1 ].
Now Tamil Nadu seems to be topping the list of most number of road accidents happening in the Country with Chennai city having the deadliest roads among India's six metropolises. On an average, 35 persons die in road mishaps every day in Tamil Nadu while it is about 2 persons per day in the Chennai city. Main causes of road traffi c accidents[ 7 ]. Human factor contribute significantly to increasing number of road accidents in India. Most drivers continue to be acting like maniacs in a tearing hurry and error in judgment often leads to major accidents.
Reckless driving, over speeding, decline to follow traffic rules, and drunken driving are main reasons for road accidents. Drunken driving is one of the major causes of road accidents.
The statistics also show that most of the road accidents in the highways are due to drunken driving only. Globally, some , deaths and 20 million of people get injured by drunken driving every year.
In India, drunken driving is customary in commercial vehicle drivers. Private car owners and youngsters are also major players in the game. Small bars along the Indian highways are of prime concern to control drunken driving. India has laws to check the drunken driving but its effective implementation is still to be worked upon.
Driver fatigue is a very dangerous condition created when a person is suffering symptoms of fatigue while driving, often resulting from the hypnotic effect especially during nighttime driving either falling asleep at the wheel or so exhausted to make serious- and fatal-driving errors. The increasing number of traffic accidents due to a diminished driver's vigilance level has become a serious problem for society.
Furthermore, accidents related to driver's hypo-vigilance are more serious than other types of accidents, since sleepy drivers often do not take correct action prior to a collision. World's first RTA is supposed to have occurred in For every one killed, injured, or disabled by RTA, there are countless others deeply affected by the cost of prolonged medical care, loss of a family bread winner, or the extra funds needed to care for the people with disabilities.
RTA survivors, their families, friends, and other care givers often suffer adverse social, physical, and psychological effects.
RTA ranks as the 11 th leading cause of death and accounts for 2. The most vulnerable road users are pedestrians, cyclists, two-wheeler riders, and passengers on public transport. RTA injuries are becoming the third largest contributor to the global burden of diseases by It is estimated that every year RTA costs billions of rupees globally and nationally.
An RTA injury puts significant strain on health care budgets. Road deaths and injuries are preventable. A wide range of effective road safety interventions exist and a scientific system approach to road safety is essential to tackle the problem.
This approach should address the traffic system as a whole and look into interactions between vehicle, road users, and road infrastructure to identify solution. Well-maintained vehicles with good breaks, lighting, tyres etc. Vehicles should be provided with seat belts and other necessary safety provisions like airbags.
Roads should be well maintained with frequent relaying of road surfaces and markings of road safety signs. Issuing of the driving license should be strictly based on the minimum proficiency acquired by the learners from designated driving schools. Training on first aid should be compulsory along with heath education and traffic education for the general public to prevent accidents.
Indiscriminate honking to be avoided, except as a means of greeting or in dire emergencies. Rules for compulsory wearing of helmets by two wheelers and seat belts by four wheelers must be implemented. Removal of stray animals like cattle and removal of encroachments on footpath and road margins will enable smooth flow of traffic.
Preventing haphazard parking of vehicles on busy roads and intersections to ensure free flow of traffic. Provision of ambulances and trained health personals in shifting and transporting the injured person to nearby hospitals for treatment. Awareness creation among all sections of the society to treat accident victims with sympathy and without fear so that the morbidity and mortality can be reduced.
Many deaths and impact of injuries can be prevented with first aid if causalities are treated immediately. One of the most common causes of a road accident death is due to loss of oxygen supply. This is mostly caused by a blocked airway. Normally it takes less than 4 min for a blocked airway to cause death. If proper first aid is given, road accident victims have a greater chance of survival and a reduction in the severity of their injuries.
The presidents and prime ministers of these countries are expressing their commitment and launching national plans for the Decade, which seeks to save 5 million lives over the year period. India is also a committed partner in this campaign and on May 11 the event was launched with greater commitment to minimize road accidents. Effective community participation also plays a key role in the prevention of RTA. Addressing the risks of these three groups will require multiple policy initiatives.
The real pressure and motivation to improve driving skills can come only through licensing authorities by adopting stricter, more comprehensive, and scientifically based tests, laying a stress on road rules, regulations, and traffic control devices.
The injury profile for road traffic crashes in developing countries differs in important ways from the profile seen in developed countries.
The safety on our roads needs to be given the highest priority by governments as well as the public at an all-India level. The Bill seeks to establish a National Road Safety and Traffic Management Board for the development and regulation of road safety, traffic management system, and safety standards in highway design and construction.
The functions of the Board include recommending minimum standards for design, construction, and maintenance of national highways, recommending minimum standards for trauma and paramedical facilities for traffic-related injuries on the national highway, and conduct safety audits to monitor compliance with the standards notified by the central government.
It also recommends minimum safety standards for the manufacture of mechanically propelled vehicles and other types of vehicles, recommends minimum conditions of safety such as specifying the maximum load bearing and capacity limits, recommends standards for vehicular traffic on the national highways speed lanes, right of way , conduct research on road safety and management, establish procedure for data collection, involve nongovernment organizations in the promotion of road safety, and provide for special requirement of women, children, and senior citizens.
The legislation was introduced in May and sought to create separate national and state boards to address road safety issues, including road engineering, awareness campaigns to reduce accidents on national and state highways, and coordination with different agencies on safety issues. Two years after it was rejected by a parliamentary standing committee with a stinging critique, the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways has decided to give another push to National Road Safety and Traffic Management Board Bill in the current financial year.
During the post-Budget session in March , a new bill on Motor Vehicle Act was passed in the Parliament and the Union Cabinet has approved the Motor Vehicle Amendment Bill which will enhance the tooth and power of the traffic enforcing agencies throughout the country, a uniform code of strict traffic rules and enhanced penalties for different types of traffic violations which is expected to act as a deterrent for traffic violations and there by help to reduce road accidents and deaths.
According to the amendment, the use of mobile phones or iPads while driving could be subjected to a fine of Rs for the first offence, with Rs and Rs chargeable for the second time. For overspeeding, a fine ranging between Rs and Rs can be imposed for the first offence and for the second offence Rs and Rs There is no substantial change in the penalty of rash driving. While the same offence a second time will cost you between Rs and Rs The bill has categorized driving under influence as follows.
In the case of death in a road accident, the compensation proposed has been hiked from Rs 25, to Rs , In the case of serious injury, the compensation would be Rs 50, As per the new bill, motor insurance claims have to be filed within a year of the accident. The Supreme Court of India as long back as observed that when accidents occur and the victims are taken to hospitals or to a medical practitioner, they are not taken care of for giving emergency medical treatment on the ground that the case is a medico-legal case and the injured person should go to a Government Hospital.
The Supreme Court emphasized the need for making it obligatory for hospitals and medical practitioners to provide emergency medical care. This law clearly states that it shall be the duty of every hospital and every medical practitioner to immediately attend on every person involved in an accident or who is purportedly in an emergency condition, when such a person has come or has been brought to the hospital or to the private medical practitioner and screen or transfer such person as stated in section 4 and when the screening reveals the existence of an emergency medical condition, to stabilize or transfer such person as stated in section 5 and afford them, such medical treatment as may be urgently called for:.
Without raising any objection that it is a medico-legal case requiring information to the police authorities,. Whether or not such a person is immediately in a position to make payment for screening and emergency medical treatment, and without insisting on payment as a condition precedent,.
Whether or not such a person has medical insurance or is a member of any medical scheme of the person's employer or to a scheme which otherwise provides for medical reimbursement, and.
Even in spite of this legal protection, the emergency care to accident victims is delayed resulting in loss of precious lives. Road Traffic Injuries are one of the leading causes of premature deaths, hospitalizations, disabilities, and socioeconomic losses. The problem is hidden and unrecognized due to the absence of good quality information within the health and related sectors. The currently available data reveal only the number of deaths due to different causes of injuries which is not enough to formulate injury prevention programs.
A Public Health Perspective of Road Traffic Accidents
Vehicle insurance also known as car insurance , motor insurance , or auto insurance is insurance for cars , trucks , motorcycles , and other road vehicles. Its primary use is to provide financial protection against physical damage or bodily injury resulting from traffic collisions and against liability that could also arise from incidents in a vehicle. Vehicle insurance may additionally offer financial protection against theft of the vehicle, and against damage to the vehicle sustained from events other than traffic collisions, such as keying , weather or natural disasters , and damage sustained by colliding with stationary objects. The specific terms of vehicle insurance vary with legal regulations in each region. Widespread use of the motor car began after the First World War in urban areas. Cars were relatively fast and dangerous by that stage, yet there was still no compulsory form of car insurance anywhere in the world.
The most common reason for contact with the police is being a driver in a traffic stop. Persons are asked if they were stopped by police as the driver of or as a passenger in a motor vehicle. Persons who report more than one contact during the year are asked to describe the most recent occurrence. Those who experienced a traffic stop as their most recent contact with police are asked about the characteristics of the stop, such as the reason for the traffic stop, if they felt the stop was legitimate, the outcome of the stop, and if they felt police behaved properly. The PPCS has been conducted about every three years since
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Lasso: Linkage Analysis of Serious Sexual Offences
Road traffic accidents RTAs have emerged as an important public health issue which needs to be tackled by a multi-disciplinary approach. The trend in RTA injuries and death is becoming alarming in countries like India. The number of fatal and disabling road accident happening is increasing day by day and is a real public health challenge for all the concerned agencies to prevent it. The approach to implement the rules and regulations available to prevent road accidents is often ineffective and half-hearted. Awareness creation, strict implementation of traffic rules, and scientific engineering measures are the need of the hour to prevent this public health catastrophe.
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A Public Health Perspective of Road Traffic Accidents
K Abstract. One of the most important considerations when investigating a serious sexual offence is to find if it can be linked to other offences. If this can be done then there is a considerable dividend in terms additional evidence and new lines of enquiry. The central problem is the construction of a satisfactory typology of these crimes, but little progress has been made. It is the authors contention that difficulties arise from the inadequacy of the adoption of the classical or crisp set paradigm. Complex events like crimes cannot be described satisfactorily in this way and it is proposed that fuzzy set theory offers a powerful framework within which crime can be portrayed in a sensitive and perceptive manner that can enhance the search for associations between offences.
To those who have not experienced racial profiling or do not know someone who has, it may seem to be nothing more than a mere inconvenience. However, racial profiling is much more than a hassle or an annoyance. It has real and direct consequences.
Новый стандарт шифрования. Отныне и навсегда. Шифры, которые невозможно взломать. Банкиры, брокеры, террористы, шпионы - один мир, один алгоритм. Анархия. - Какой у нас выбор? - спросила Сьюзан.
It does not provide a detailed profile of the offenders, their mode of offence, the point The present manual system could not account for the record of offences.
Какие-то безумцы ныряли со сцены в это людское море, и его волны швыряли их вперед и назад, как волейбольные мячи на пляже. Откуда-то сверху падали пульсирующие стробоскопические вспышки света, придававшие всему этому сходство со старым немым кино. У дальней стены дрожали включенные на полную мощность динамики, и даже самые неистовые танцоры не могли подойти к ним ближе чем на десять метров. Беккер заткнул уши и оглядел толпу. Куда бы ни падал его взгляд, всюду мелькали красно-бело-синие прически. Тела танцующих слились так плотно, что он не мог рассмотреть, во что они одеты. Британского флага нигде не было .
Предупредить. Он же вас ненавидит. - Он позвонил и предупредил, что заканчивает работу над алгоритмом, создающим абсолютно стойкие шифры. Я ему не поверил. - Но зачем он вам об этом сообщил? - спросила Сьюзан. - Хотел предложить вам купить этот алгоритм. - Нет.
Старик внимательно разглядывал подозрительного посетителя. Беккер перешел чуть ли не на шепот: - Я здесь, чтобы узнать, не нужно ли вам чего-нибудь. - Скажем, принести пару таблеток валиума.
Сирены продолжали завывать; то и дело вспыхивали сигнальные огни. Тремя этажами ниже дрожали и гудели резервные генераторы. Сьюзан знала, что где-то на дне этого погруженного в туман подземелья есть рубильник. Кроме того, она понимала, что времени почти не оставалось.
- Он постарался ее успокоить, входя вслед за ней в комнату заседаний к закрытому жалюзи окну. - Пусть директор разбирается. Она посмотрела ему в .